This great Purusa, brilliant as the sun, who
is beyond all darkness, I know him in my
heart. Who knows the Purusa thus,
attains immortality in this very birth.
I know of no other way to salvation.
From the Purusa Sukta of the Rg Veda
"Purusa alone is this entire world, both past and future: he is also the lord of immortality when he mounts above (to heaven) for food."
from the Rg Veda, Book 10- Chapter 90
Pada 1 (Samadhi Pada) begins from the primordial space of eternal "Now Awareness", but assumes that the reader's mental condition has become temporally corrupted, fragmented, obstructed, and programmed/conditioned into a limited belief system which falsely assumes a dualistic/disparate "world", where the profound and sacred inter-dimensional wholographic continuity between primordial original mind as "timeless presence" (in the present) has become disrupted/broken or split, by negative conditioning. Instead of "being" engaged within a non-dual interconnected "Reality", where all beings and things are mirror-like transparent reflections of this primordial wisdom (the Original Mind or true all pervasive Self) has become veiled in a temporary state of consciousness, which is obstructed and programmed to identify itself and "the world" as separate or discontinuous from the everpresent whole. That fragmented illusion is smashed to pieces through authentic yoga revealing boundless love and light (Nirbija Samadhi)
Hence, "yoga" is then explained as a method of reunification, reintegration, or remediation leading to the ultimate samadhi (nirbija samadhi), where the limited and fragmented state of consciousness (avidya) is released and the sadhak becomes naturally reunited with primordial Source without discontinuity nor disruption. As a result, that fully re-integrated state free from past programming looks very different from the pre-yoga fragmented dualistic limited mindset (of the citta-vrtta), where the yoga practitioner began. Kaivalyam, thus is-as-it-is, undisturbed, and unobscured by citta-vrtti. Kaivalya, as defined in II.25, and as Samadhi as defined in III.3 (swarupa-sunyam) then becomes the context of the rest of the Yoga Sutras here in Pada 4 (Kaivalyam). In reality then, avidya does not exist, but rather it is a place holder/indicator for vidya (true vision) should it be ignored. Recognized or not recognized, this is our real state. Being totally dissolved and absorbed in primordial timeless knowledge is our natural home in ALL OUR RELATIONS. That is the dynamic context of Kaivalya Pada where objects of consciousness are "ever-changing" in "ever-presence".
So in Pada 4, the all-creating Mind or "True Self", as "Purusa", as embodiment abiding in primordial knowledge, is now defined *not* in a fragmented context of subject/object dualistic terms (egoic consciousness trapped within a samsaric mindset), but now in a boundless, transconceptual, and transpersonal context of an ever present wholistic Self. "Things/Phenomena" look very different NOW, dare we label it magical, risking the misinterpretation that it is not Reality itself. This is the contextual frame of Kaivalya Pada as if the words, context or frame, are at all suitable for that, which can not be boxed-in or even pointed out -- for if the boundless illimitable could be defined, if words can be utilized effectively to use as temporary place holders where subjective being when direct experience resides in the open space of so-called Absolute and Unconditional Freedom; how can such expressed in words!.
In this chapter, ordinary (dualistic) conscious awareness (citta-vrtti) is no longer dominating the experiencer. This pada does not reinforce the limitations of the karmic framework and propensities (programming) of time, space, and causation as dominant; yet it recognizes such as a limited context, which must be abandoned and remediated. Rather, HERE, in Pada 4, the immediacy of primordial/original and unconditioned consciousness is omni-present and unbroken. HERE, the mental error of projecting a separate or isolated "Self" (Purusa) has become revealed as false. Rather universal living and intelligent consciousness is manifesting in all beings and things (all pervasive, unlimited, and omnipresent) in the self-radiant heart of hearts (as the true universal heart-essence) -- the essential intelligent energy of all-being, recognized as such. In Pada 4, waking up is not presented as a process, where each sentient being must identify their obstructions, vasana, samskaras, citta-vrtti, karma, or kleshas, and then remove or release them individually or willfully. Rather HERE, primordial consciousness is presented as our natural true state, which has always holographically existed, which is uncreated by anything prior, which is not fabricated, never dies, and is our natural unconditioned situation -- the all encompassing, limitless, holographic realm where all occurs. All beings and things have that same omnipresent sparkling purusa within, outside, and for ever and are manifest/living reflections of that (if our inner eyes have become opened and can see or not). When the sadhak recognizes that, practice is over, unconditional liberation is realized. When the egoic obstructions have become completely dissolved and reabsorbed into that, that is kaivalya.
For the ordinary materialistic person (bogged down in gross/coarse awareness), this interconnected and interdependent wholistic relationship is rarely recognized in daytime reality preoccupied by the 5 dense objects alone. To them "other"beings and things (phenomena) appear solid, disconnected, separate, substantial, and compounded. They do not place "events" as occurring in a natural continuous integral and timeless context. For the sincere practitioner, it is recognized at first as magical ecstatic states, glimpses, satoris, highs, spiritual emergence. It is experienced as clarity, feelings of harmony, beauty, bliss, love, and high level wellness, completeness, and fulfillment, in comparison. Later, it is the unification (yoga) of "Absolute Reality" of the inseparable unification (yoga) of consciousness with infinite diversity (differentiated consciousness), which is nothing other than pure being (sat) -- unification of (Sat-Cit-Ananda).
Through practices (sadhana) given in the previous chapters, these integral experiences become more familiar, accessible, and continuous. Especially in simple sitting emptiness meditation (dhyana), it can be most easily and reliably accessed by experienced meditators. Dhyana (silent sitting meditation), as we have seen, is the main sadhana (practice) in yoga which leads us to samadhi, but very few know how to practice effectively. But then this realization gleaned through familiarity, is to be engaged upon in ALL OUR RELATIONS without a break, which reflects the heart of the Mater -- no other.
The Path: Silent Sitting Emptiness Meditation: the Gateless Gate or Open Doorway to Samadhi
When at first we practice meditation (dhyana), we see how deeply entrenched the monkey mind’s attachments and propensities have become; how conditioned the mind has become; our accumulated imprints (samskaras), habitual tendencies (vasanas); kleshas (emotional afflictions); recurring patterning of the mind (citta-vrtti) and the like; and how all these are connected to karma, to ignorance (avidya) and to desire/aversion (raga/dvesa) - a dissociation from our own true nature of mind (swarupa). The good news is that yoga practice such as dhyana (meditation) affords us the means to free us from these maladies and allow us to connect with our authentic self nature (swarupa). This freedom is not just a negation of the former, but an active affirmation of the seamless unity clarity, active peace, compassion, wisdom, and joy. Freed, we are liberated -- experience Kaivalya. Tat Tvam Asi! In short, after the kleshas disappear, then the recognition of being in primordial awareness self-arises naturally.
Thus, at first dhyana (as silent sitting meditation, is silencing the adventitious mind without effort. Rather it is a release (let go). Because of karmic habituation, it often is be a bit rocky, interspersed with periods of calm lucidity, unexcelled joy, high level wellness, clarity, and light, which gradually deepens and lengthens in-between periods of wandering/restless mentations (citta-vrtti). With consistent application of open presence as unattached awareness (abhyasa-vairagyabhyam) and the practice of authentic self-study (swadhyaya) as awareness of pure awareness (mind knowing mind), eventually these practices lead the practitioner increasingly toward a profound re-integrative experience, where clarity, strength, calmness, awareness, and creative insight abound.
This is the path of dhyana as sublime absorption/reintegration whose boon is samadhi. What is dissolved is the egoic barriers (the dualistic self) of the citta-vrtti, the kleshas, karma, samskaras, and vasana. The self dies! Hooray!
As these old layers and patterns dissolve and disintegrate, they become re-absorbed by melting into the omnipresent and omniscient ocean of love self luminous transpersonal compassion (kaivalya). This pure awareness (Cit) and experiential state (Sat) expands into everyday life and every moment continuously eliminating suffering (Ananda). As everyday life is more balanced (sattvic), then we slip into our daily practices increasingly more primed/prepared. There are less coarse obstructions and resistance to dislodge, so the process goes deeper. More light and wisdom (vidya) shines through the unobstructed mind as the old habituated veils and obscurations weaken. As long as we do not ascribe pride or ego for this state of grace, success (siddhi) will be experieneced. Eventually a synergistic synchronicity between everyday life and practice is effortlessly activated. We see that all effort has been counter-productive in the end, having taken us away from the immediacy of natural ever-presence. In dhyana, the mind itself is the teacher once we learn how to listen to it. Once its distractive tendencies are eliminated, clear-light seeing is experienced as a symbol for being in the immediacy of primordial awareness.
In yoga, the inner work (which is produced from practice and experience, rather than from books, external teachers, analytical processes, memorization, or conformity to rules) begin to bear fruit in ALL OUR RELATIONS. We gradually realize the underlying truth which has been in front of our faces all our life – during both sleep and waking – before birth and after death – residing in the Great Continuum, which is yoga. This unbiased unconditioned universal Reality in turn reveals the workings of the relative world of cause and effect -- all things come together into an organic synchronicity in ALL OUR RELATIONS, because the cobwebs and obscurations of that have previously veiled our vision and mental processes have now been cleansed. The many is revealed by its interconnected integrity as the one, and the one is revealed in its infinite all inclusive richness by the many. The one is in the many, and the fullness of the many is experienced by experiencing the one.
Meditation (dhyana), as do all the other yoga practices work as mutual aids to bring forth direct non-dual insight. They activate the inner unconditioned wisdom and our dormant creative/evolutionary potential. The lens becomes cleansed, clear, and open. Thus, through yogic practice (sadhana) we gradually awake and emerge out of the pattern of the sleep of ordinary conditioned dualistic ignorance. This awakened power, sharpened instinct, intuition, insight, heightened awareness, inner wisdom, and authentic knowledge of the true Nature of our own mind has many names, but it is not the same as "knowledge" memorized from books or from external so called authoritative sources. Rather self realization has to come from inside -- from our own direct experience, which in the end is found as the universal intrinsic transpersonal non-dual essence with all beings and things. In yoga, only this experiential approach is authentic, self empowering, and brings authentic self confidence, security, fulfillment, and peace. Pada 4 assumes that one has experience in transconceptual meditative absorption, where egoic self-limitations have been dissolved experientially through practice, if only momentarily.
From Duality to Self-Less Love-Wisdom as Our Natural Condition: Freedom from from the Egoic Mindset and Karma (Causation)
Generally speaking, a beginning practitioner of yoga starts off at first finding themselves in a comparatively insensitive, coarse, gross, materialistic, and consequently lowered vibrational state of awareness (savitarka, savicara, saguna). But a wisely applied and joyfully inspired yoga practice over time (abhyasa-vairagyabhyam) gradually purifies and removes the denseness, coarseness, rigidity, old patterns, and occlusions from the field of consciousness (citta-vrtti), so that the obscuring tendencies (the kleshas such as avidya, etc) gradually lose power and validity, and fall away (the reality of nirvitarka, nirvicara, and nirguna is gleaned). The HeartMind becomes clear, vibrant, alive, self luminous, open, fluid, and awakened as the old impurities, afflictions, blockages, trances, and compulsions (klesha, samskara, vasana, negative karma) are liberated --citta-vrtti-nirodah happens -- yoga is accomplished. All boundaries of the mind are released/liberated. The mind is opened to Primordial Consciousness (Param-Purusa) and no longer limited . That intrinsic but heretofore dormant inner wisdom which is now revealed and activated becomes spontaneously and naturally self liberating maturing into manifestation/emanation. As the hindrances and obstructions (kleshas) have become eliminated, the HeartMind naturally goes to and resides within its core essence effortlessly. Unconditioned liberation as final dissolution (kaivalyam) is realized.
The process is not complex, but rather it is a profound simplification -- a gradual waking up from a dross sleep contaminated by confused habituations and inhibitions have become purified-- purified through the means of a functional, focused, and authentic yogic practice, where the previously dormant evolutionary circuitry has become potenized and activated, and eventually attuned to the cosmic symphony of nature and primordial consciousness from which human life has sprung. The tree of Life thus becomes enlivened --standing firm and confident at its roots and long and fully nourished at its tops. Our intrinsic creative potential, buddhanature (true nature), spontaneously is revealed and arrives home (swarupa).
When spiritual sadhana has reached its culmination in kaivalyam (total reintegration/reabsorption), spiritual change happens by itself. Self actualization happens spontaneously and effortlessly in the process of authentic yoga, not just sporadically, but in ALL OUR RELATIONS. Although, the sadhak has previously met with resistances, those obstructions and boundaries are now completely washed away/purified. In what has been termed, the raj yoga system, as presented by Patanjali, the general focus and primary means to melt down this resistance was meditation (dhyana). Although meditation is the primary instrumental technique, the goal is absolute liberation, independent of conditions or conditioning -- kaivalyam (the essential purport of this final chapter of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras). Patanjali does not say that dhyana (meditation) is an exclusive or only sole method to realize liberation, but it is the one most closely aligned with samadhi and the predecessor to samyama. Eventually at the end, then the meditation hut, cushion, meditation retreat, yoga blanket, and all "means" to the end has also to be abandoned (released). This happens as we learn about the nature of consciousness and the non-dual Selfless Self (swarupa-sunyam) where atman is not separate from Brahman - the culmination of yogic sadhana or is it the beginning of embodying the Noble Sacred Life?
Thus, through authentic yogic sadhana we learned about the intelligent heart-source of our own mind whose awareness has become obscured as we acclimatized and adapted to a "conditioned and artificial mind" (citta-vrtti) as we learned how to uncondition/deprogram that mindset. We do not have to memorize nor elaborate upon the specific pathologies or modalities of the conditioned mind (citta-vrtti), like studying for an academic test at school in order to attain authentic spiritual knowledge. True spiritual knowledge is not a knowledge "about" anything, not memorization, nor facts (worldly knowledge), but it is based on direct transverbal, transconceptual, transcognitive, and transpersonal direct experience. Neither does one have to study books of grammar, philosophy, semantics, and the like. Especially dangerous is to to fall into the trap of agenda, preconception, assumption, or belief "about" what kaivalyam looks like when we are still in the samsaric state. That is a very seductive and subtle trap which have ensnared many. All artifice and imputation must be completely abandoned before the open doorway appears and is penetrated. That entry is reserved to dedicated true seekers -- the pure of heart..
The dedicated practitioner of yoga becomes focused on one thing (one pointedly) by first becoming acquainted inside -- by knowing the instrument of knowing. When that is accomplished the practitioner becomes naturally and effortlessly able recognize the true nature of one's own mind. It happens spontaneousyas the sahaj way. Then with clear vision the workings of nature and evolution reveals and discloses itself effortlessly. What is revealed is the true nature of awareness itself, recognizing the underlying Source of Intelligence and Consciousness, which when tpuched opens the inner eye and heart-mind. When the cobwebs occluding the inner eye have become cleansed to “see”, then that intrinsic universal seed potential is revealed and exprienced as the true nature residing within all beings and things as their own innate universal self-nature (swarupa-sunyam). It is like the world becomes alive, vivified, infused, and animated with spirit.
This opening of the wisdom eye is vidya (pure vision) or sarva-jnana (all knowledge) which is the antitheses of and antidote to avidya (ignorance). No ego owns it (asmita) or can claim it for themselves. Rather this knowledge is truly universal, boundless, ubiquitous, all pervading, and unlimited. The Selfless Self-realized yogi in this very body merely accesses this spiritual knowledge base when appropriate or needed. Indeed there is nowhere where this all pervasive intrinsic seed source self luminosity does not exist, except in the mind's of human beings afflicted by avidya. Hence, when this awareness is activated, awakened, and matured inside, we simultaneously also experience this same intrinsic seed consciousness in other beings and things -- in ALL OUR RELATIONS. HERE. All we need do is allow this to spontaneously occur -- to be open to change -- to let go of and release our imputations and beliefs, recognizing the existece of heart consciosness in all.
An analogy HERE might be that Pure Universal Consciousness (Cit) is like the Sun while the individual mind (manas) and intellect (buddhi) is like its rays. Sometimes the rays become obscured, cloudy, refracted, distorted, dissipated, or even blocked out so that the light is very dim. Yoga teaches us how to keep the pathways, open, light, bright, luminous, and in delight through inner practice that illumines the light from the all-light/clear light. This way we commune with, embrace, strengthen, and communicate in an intimate, meaningful, and fulfilling relationship, sympathy, and alignment with Source and become trans-substantiated -- embodied and dancing in tune as the transconceptional, transpersonal, non-dual, unconditioned, infinite universal mind, – the true Self, naturally as an authentic and organic teaching occurring holographically (from the inside out and from outside in), which has become activated through authentic yogic practice. That process is contrasted to ordinary external knowledge, which is imposed from the outside through external authority, tradition, book knowledge, peer belief systems, and acquired beliefs, which too often reinforces the very boundaries and prisons that yoga is designed to remove.
This distinction is emphasized because most students mistakenly think that the purpose of studying the Yoga Sutras is to understand the text, but rather we study the Yoga Sutras to glean insight on how to deepen and empower our practice, so that we can access and experience the Self directly (the Yoga Sutras acting as guidebook or a field manual useful once we have begun exploring the territory, but not a substitute for experiential wisdom, spiritual practice, and direct access). The intellectual may seek entertainment, stimulation, and book knowledge, while the yogi is seeking something in stark contrast to that -- bare and naked.
For many centuries prior to Patanjali's birth, authentic Yoga teachings were made available through a living oral tradition. There were no studying of texts on yoga, because no texts existed. Rather the study was on the true nature of mind and being -- spirit and nature, and the removal of suffering and the direct experience of love and bliss (Satchitananda) -- the union of Pure Being, Pure Consciousness and Pure Joy) through the medium of experiential practices. Thus, the Raj Yoga yoga tradition was transmitted as an oral tradition while the key art was self-realization, which is essentially the art of self study -- of knowing the true nature of mind and being whose true nature rests beyond even its most subtle and minute manifestation. Patanjali intended the Yoga Sutras to be a means toward that selfless experience of universal truth so that one could access Source in ALL OUR RELATIONS -- to realize total integration, samadhi which manifests as Kaivalyam.
We call this original oral yoga tradition (which is the same tradition that Shakyamuni Buddha practiced), the mountain yogi tradition, because it was practiced in the mountain caves, river beds, and forest hermitages far from mass population centers, monastic and academic institutions. The classroom was th sadhak's body-mind in the context of ALL OUR RELATIONS. Because these teaching were independent of church, priesthoods, caste, ceremony, ritual, organizations, or sacred texts, it did not favor entrenched religious institutions or empires. After Patanjali wrote down the Yoga Sutras as a compendium of yogic practices, it was immediately misappropriated by the existing academic and religious orthodoxy of its time, interpreting it as an arcane philosophical text belonging to samkhya dualist tradition, thus practice and direct experience has taken the back seat. Patanjali was aware of the possibility of this perversion and that is why he categorized pramana, smrti, and vikalpa as as vrtti, and gave many warnings against intellectualization, but he had no control over the academic institutions bent on its expropriation.
We are born from Wonder.
We are born into Wonder
We die into Wonder
HERE is everlasting beginningless Wonder
Mental and Emotional aberrations obscure
Let them go into
This Great Wonder
All is Wonder!
From Wonder We Come
To Wonder We Go
In Wonder We Abide
Our attachment to the ego/separate identity, the sense organs and physical body (abhinivesah), aversion (dvesa), attachment (raga), and egoic false identification (asmita) are the result of ignoring (avidya) this Great Continuity and Integrity, hence a negative compensatory mechanism that is rife with patterns that attempt to substitute false identifications and insular belief systems becomes established, which further hinders our vision, in a futile attempt to make the ego feel more secure and protected within its isolating/insulated shell. This circular samsaric mechanism held together by the kleshas has been shown to be, at its root, a dissociation from our true primordial self nature (swarupa-sunyam ). That split has become institutionalized. The propagation of transgenerational ignorance is exactly the negative programming which authentic yoga defeats. When all conditioning and programming no longer operates nor negatively affect our consciousness, that is kaivalyam. Authentic Yoga practices break that bondage caused by avidya moving us back into unconditioned causeless/beginningless NOW awareness experienced as Great Bliss. In the beginning we experience temporary breakthroughs where the karmic conditioning ceases -- we then abide beyond the clouds for periods long or short. However, when the clouds no longer obscure, and the sun shines supreme united with the moon as one, then that is Kaivalyam HERE and Now.
Kaivalyam is, in the beginning, experienced as ever-newness with a heightened sense of aliveness. The heightened sense of aliveness comes from a higher vibratory frequency, open nadis/channels, the activation of the evolutionary biopsychic circuitry of embodiment (chakras), and the reintegration of cit-shakti or cit-prana as a re-entry into the beginningless ever presence in the relative ever-newness. Individual karmic traces have become erased for such a human being, individual suffering is also no longer possible, the spell of delusion has become broken, but on a transpersonal and non-dual level the great work has just begun because the human being is meant to interact from this sacred space in harmony with evolution and primordial consciousness as its evolutionary vehicle in the magical realm of ALL OUR RELATIONS
Maha Mrityunjay Mantra
Om Tryamlakam Yajamahe
Sugandhim Pusti - vardhanam
Urva - rukamiva Bandhanan
Mrtyor - muksheeya Ma - amritat
"Oh compassionate one, Siva, whose third eye has awakened
Your all pervading fragrant presence
Suffuses and nourishes and penetrates all three realms (physical, mental and spiritual) completely.
Oh Lord Siva,
May I too be free from the bondage to cyclic existence,
Just as the ripe fruit is liberated from the vine,
May I drink the ambrosial bliss of eternity Here and Now and Forever."
The Yoga Sutras point toward authentically incorporating and integrating pure spiritual teachings to be integrated in one's daily life -- a living message more meaningful today than ever before; while at the same time the sadhak experiences a diminuation of externally imposed authoritarian dictates, words, man-made tradition, the limitations of the reductionist mind, inference, ordinary modalities of dualistic perception, distractive modalities of thought, stupor, torpor, and past impressions. In short, pramana, vikalpa, nidra, and all the rest of the vrttis fade, as do samskaras, vasana, klesha, karma, desire, aversion, and avidya (ignorance) disappear. Precisely, nothing adequately replaces direct realization and this is what Patanjali advocates, i.e., experience samadhi. From the increasingly deepening glimpses that authentic practice affords, one naturally gains confidence of the true nature of mind, where the Yoga Sutras may serve as a helpful guidebook should one decide to consult it.
Having explained the general assumptions in Pada One (defining Yoga and samadhi as a transconceptional alignment, communion, harmonization, transubstantiation, and wholistic transpersonal non-dual integration); explaining the practices (sadhana) in Pada Two; the proficiencies (Vibhuti) in pada Three; so here, in Pada Four (Kaivalyam), Patanjali describes the ultimate liberation, which is a self-liberation without qualification as realized in nirbija-samadhi (seedless samadhi).
Space, Time, and Causation: Primordial Consciousness and the Evolutionary Power
What is labelled by the non-yogis as magical work, such as applying samyama, takes place after we step out of "the samsaric box", thus being able to avoid such trappings, as the mind becomes expansive (boundless). Whoosh, a transformation occurs. Here consciousness is no longer boxed in or out, but rather unconditional freedom rules. The sadhak trades off the pre-existng imprisoned mindset for the Boundless Wisdom Mind. The egoic mind is recognized as hollow and narrow, limiting and stifling. As ego approaches zero, mind is accelerated into infinity. The egoic mind being recognized as an artificial and temporal construct becomes the unadorned and naked wisdom-mind. The less one needs or strives for ornaments and embellishments, each moment becomes richer and more fulfilling. Just so, as symbolic representations no longer holds sway, the direct naked experience of the moment deepens.
In physics, it is generally agreed that somewhere around 13 billion years ago, what we call the physical universe (in terms of space, time, and energy), which includes the Milky Way and planet earth was created. It has only been recent that physicists have also discovered black holes, worm holes, and other linkages to other subtle dimensions and universes. In fact, physicists are saying that all dimensions of time and space are linked. That "reality" which physics describes can not ever be contained or grasped fully by the intellect. Yet many share an awareness that WE live together in a rather immense and powerful ongoing intelligent evolutionary process, which we experience every day, but too often ignore. WE are living parts of that intelligent evolutionary force (Shiva/Shakti), thus knowing our true nature is acknowledging timeless reality. Problems arise only because we tend to frame such in limited terms of place and existential time.
How does this fact affect the common man, or the yogi, one may ask? The common man can ignore our commonwealth, although occasionally feeling "one" by experiencing temporary transpersonal satoris and beatific visions through chance excursions in nature, communions, sexual orgasm transcendental music, art, chanting, communal work, trans-species communication, etc. Although the average physicist may have intellectual knowledge of these realms of existence, such falls short of subjective integration -- an integrated experiential reality of subject/object non-duality.
Again, using the example of the big bang, we can imagine that WE are intimately linked NOW to the beginning of this universe sequentially via space and time (all the way back 13 billion years ago). That linkage includes the creation of everything, and hence, the creative/evolutionary power, which vibrates to this very moment today -- the unending result of that animating spirit. Such is the infamous "missing link" that connects us to our Primordial Source. In short, Primordial Source (as pure primordial timeless pure naked awareness) is accessed through its emanation (the innate intelligent evolutionary force) generally called creation, co-evolution, mother nature, Gaia, etc. This is what is known as the union of the relative and absolute, form and emptiness, Shakti and Shiva, Samsara and Nirvana or simply the truth of interdependence.
Creation is known by various ways depending on the eyes who view her. To those severely bound by rigid, tight, fragmented, and narrow operations of the citta-vrtti, nature is seen as dead, inanimate, solid, fixed, separate, and material. One may say that this is the ordinary materialistic view of nature and the world where a built-in fragmented dualism is created between the viewer and the object viewed, which is none other than I/it or subject/object duality. Another word that Patanjali has for that is ignorance (avidya) or asmita (the egoic mindset). It is the realm of samsaric existence and defined as the first two primary kleshas (obscurations).
As we gradually wake up (moksha) we recognize the nature of observation itself (a timeless observer or what can be posited as viewing from a Third Eye) to exist outside dualistic limits of temporal time and place, free of causality, bias, or distortion where we can observe the workings of the small "self" and the domination of the five senses. Can we say that this is the Divine Purusa as pure witmess consciousness? This is the stage of witness consciousness recognition, but not yet integration. or self realization. It may be Maheshvara (Shiva), but devoid of Shakti if it is lacking the richness of infinite diversity; the Clear Light devoid of the field being illuminated. When perceived in clarity (vidya) it reveals the suprsensory, rich, and alive differentiated relative world, albeit temporal and ever changing. When approached free from attachment, it does not taint or poison, rather it is the playground of divine lila -- the dance of Siva as Nataraja.
This intermediate stage of evolutionary consciousness gives us perspective, self-awareness, and the ability to let go of attachment, ignorance, egoic mindsets, negative states, and limied awareness. The possible trap at this stage is to negate "the world", "the body", "life", and nature or to demean life (prana-shakti) as an illusion. Such is the error of nihilism – a wasted life, which is the result of fear, ignorance, dissociation, isolation, negativity, and an aversion toward the evolutionary force. Such is not true freedom, but rather escapism and delusion. This is also the samkhya philosopher's error, who excludes prakrti (natural phenomena) while affirming only the imperishable "self"(the pursha) as an observer as the exclusive reality. Hence, Samkha philosophers mistakenly, interpret kaivalya to refer to the dissolution of "the world", rather than to the dissolution of subject/object dualistic thinking processes.
Patanjali, in his inclusivity, chose to reveal the dissolution of the mental insular barrier of the ego-sense (asmita-klesha), the objectified (I/IT) "world". As it dissolves a revelation revealing the underlying reality self-arises. This latter dissolution stage of the ego boundary is not nihilistic. The key point in the processes of dissolution and absorption is that a process is resolved, which contains the inseparable union of the two in SHIVA/SHAKTI. The previous supposition of separate entities (egos) fades in absorptive union, as samadhi (as swarupa-sunyam) is non-dual and transpersonal. The LIGHT of moksha shines through all and everything ubiquitously. The sense organs and sense objects are not negated, only they no longer become exclusively dominant. What is further affirmed is the so-called sixth sense or supersensory nervous system, activated by Kundalini Shakti where the energy body functions. Access to this truly supernatural ecological system is supremely natural. It is transpersonally replete with what is termed as the third eye (ajna chakra opening), the third ear (the nada of sublime symphonic vibratory awareness), the divine glandular tastes of amrita/soma (nectar), the flowering of the divine perfumed aroma, and sublime bhava or joy (ecstatic bliss). Such are results of transmutating, activating, and integrating previously dualistic views. This is called integrating the inner, outer, and non-dual offerings.
This is a key difference between the Yoga Darshana as it stands rightly by itself, and other dualistic philosophic systems of thought. In Buddhism it is the integration of the three kayas (Clear Luminosity and Form --Dharmakaya and Rupa Kaya).
Through authentic yoga processes, we have the opportunity to directly experience the intelligent observer as the universal overseerer in action -- in ALL OUR RELATIONS -- the broader context of true darshan or true unencumbered vision -- as the union of pure primordial unstained consciousness (CIT) free from time, place, and causality—spontaneously free from the very beginningless beginning -- in harmony and profound synchronicity with that of the evolutionary force (shakti). An unexpected/unpredictable awareness dawns by itself naturally when given the opportunity (space) in the non-dual realm of Shiva/Shakti. As we wake up a little more, the wisdom eye reveals and acknowledges the true nature of nature – the innate evolutionary power, which is the reflexive emanation from that same primordial original Source unaltered or limited by bias. Hence, Shakti becomes the path that leads back to Shiva or Isvara (Maheshvara) as the param purusa. Shiva's radiance is reflected and revealed in his raiment (Shakti), as all pervasive timeless light.
In fact, the history of all created things -- of all of creation, can be traced back to this evolutionary process (as being an integral part of this evolutionary process). That evolutionary power (Shakti) is innate in all beings and things. Hence, the evolutionary power connects us to primordial beginningless space, when all "things" were empty of form – uncreated. We become able to recognze Shiva through his wife, Shakti. We reognize the true operational nature of Shakti by recognizing Shiva. That beginningless uncreated state cannot then be successfully talked about in terms of form alone or adequately described, other that except in terms of what it is not. In yoga, we label THAT pure primordial consciousness devoid of any thing – outside of time and space, yet linked to it via the innate evolutionary power as Shiva/Shakti. The innate evolutionary power is deemed intelligent, because once its true nature is experienced, it links us to the original primordial consciousness, the awareness principle itself, which we as human beings can consciously cultivate, work with, and consult consciously. Shakti is pregnant with holographic light, self-radiant clear light displayed in all rainbow hues. This is what is meant by Cit-Shakti here in Kaivalya Pada (see Sutra IV. 34).
Ultimately, everything is already the result of that union of CIT as primordial consciousness (undifferentiated reality/light) and the ephemeral ever-newness (differentiated light/relative interdepedent reality). When viewed from boundless and ubiquitous free space, phenomena already reflects back to us that inherent primordial wisdom, which we have heretofore been blinded through the machinations of negative conditioning, so we most often habitually do not recognize it. Primordial consciousness is known not to be simply within us, but also in all beings and things (hidden, dormant, or activated). HERE spirit is known to be the prime animator and activator behind all things, not as a separate isolate or quantifiable "thing", but rather the inherent emptiness of self of all things is recognized, thus the recognition (vidya) of the basis of their unifying inseparable wholeness. HERE Siva/Shakti are the words symbolizing the inseparableness of relative and absolute reality -- of differentiated and undifferentiated light, as realized. WE effortlessly abide in the overflowing wealth of infinite Primordial Consciousness.
NOW- HERE we find ourselves as we have always been -- in pure consciousness (CIT), but in the ever-new terms of an ever changing evolutionary marvel of existence (SAT) -- the emanation of pure primordial consciousness (Siva) embedded in temporal space, but not exclusively so , both. In stages of waking up (moksha), we first recognize our unawareness. Then we rediscover awareness by stepping back reflexively into the holistic all-encompassing context having been reborn outside of the wheel of time/space – the wheel of life and death, no longer trapped by samsara, karma, or causation, because we now have regained access to continuous primordial consciousness. Then we re-integrate.
Reborn HERE is the abode, where the siddha does her/his co-evolutionary work – the evolutionary work that is assumed after samadhi/kaivalyam is recognized – after past programming, karma, karmic residues, and causation have become utterlessly released. Once the citta has become cleansed and clarified by the power of prakasha, and has entered sattva so that Cit alone is seen shining brightly, while one resides in pure Sat and pure bliss (Sat-Cit-Ananda), then the Great Work (Mahasandhi) begins.
Having stepped out of time/space causality – no longer bound by karma, then trans-temporal knowledge becomes our constant guide. So called magical work begins HERE. It is magical because it is not bound by the limits of space/time causality; yet there is nothing negated, ignored, nor left out. Personal karma is over for a jivamukti (a siddha yogi), but on the transpersonal/non-dual level the unhappiness of confused beings continues. Acting as a rainbow bridge between the original and timeless clear light wisdom and manifest creation/causation, the karmic winds in others no longer hold causality. Crown and root, heaven and earth, nirvana and samsara, sahasrara and muladhara are bridged, and within that all-creating flow, the vision of a new sacred earth populated by noble beings is brought into form. Here transmission is potenized.
Synopsis of Pada IV: Kaivalyam
The shortest chapter (Pada Four) is best understood, as the culmination of the purpose and result of yoga as already explained in the previous padas. It introduces many new words and terminology explaining previously mentioned practices and their purposes. Hence, Pada four can be considered a paraphrase of the previous three padas, introducing nothing really new, but adding the special contextual perspective of kaivalyam, which underlies the chapter.
Kaivalyam pada discloses the true nature of the obstructions and fragmentation of conscious awakening (kleshas, samskara, vasana, and karma), while prescribing silent sitting natural meditation (dhyana) as the optimum method to open up the mind to its innate Unbroken Continuous Boundless Potential. (Sutras IV. I-14)
Sutras IV-15-27 describe the impeding vectors in meditation, interfering with the process of awakening, as they are removed.
Sutras IV-28-34 describe what happens when all the impediments have become removed via meditation (dhyana) so that total absorption (kaivalya) is re-integrated.
Because of the use of new Sanskrit terms, some readers have proposed that Kaivalyam Pada was added at a later date. but such speculation is outside the scope of this humble work. What is certain is that it is not an intellectual treatise nor does it preach analytical philosophy as a path. Rather Pada Four is best understood as a restatement, or specifically, a rephrasing of Padas I-3, II.25, III.3, with Nirbija samadhi (sahaj samadhi) being characterized as Kaivalyam -- our primordially pure unconditioned original self nature --swarupa-sunyam. Tat Tvam Asi!
HERE WE have come home to the original mind without negation.
Purusa cannot be Owned or Bought
In the Rg Veda (the oldest of the Vedas), purusa is presented in a holographic context– a soft subtle permeable multidimensional vibratory universe is evoked. Purusa is the Macrocosm, while the Human Being is the microcosm. His/Her body is the entire universe (all of creation), a macrocosm. All things are a part of him. This "giant soul-man" who is the universe, is also its Source and Creator. The story goes that Purusa cut himself into pieces/divisions in order to create the universe, hence seemingly a self sacrifice. Yet all the evolving pieces are integral parts of this great integrity which man is intrinsically bound and to which he owes his very life and existence -- his very being. As the cosmic "human" pususha is genderless.
This is best not thought of as a corrupt process of dissolution or sin, but an evolution – a shining forth or emanation -- not as a fragmentation (pralaya), but as a moving into manifest wholeness where man awakens in the whologram (acknowledging and honoring our original great integrity and uninterrupted continuity).
In the embodiment of purusa, humans thus are presented as an analogue of this cosmic template within a vibrant integrity of a living sacred Creatrix – as both a microcosm within man’s essential self identity and external to all of creation simultaneously as a group identity. Yet human beings who do not recognize this holographic interplay (being part of this whole) prevent themselves from aligning in sympathetic harmony with it, thus prohibiting their natural potential ability to connect, touch, embody, fructify, or celebrate this joy in light. Here the yogin aligns body, breath, energy, and mind with nature (the divine creatrix) -- the Great Mother, which is both the revealer and container of original spiritual seed.
Such is the living story of`creation as our true self nature (swarupa) as the transpersonal universal and intrinsic Divine Soul (param purusa) as our completion. Such is our shared historical co-evolution, collective purpose, destiny and true primordial source all bound together in ALL OUR RELATIONS.
HERE the liberated yogi becomes an active transformer -- an open doorway to that hologram – a path unto himself only when the sadhak realizes one's intrinsic universal transpersonal true nature (swarupa-sunyam), and hence is able to access the hologram freely from universal space and clarity.
Rig Veda Book 10, chapter 90, verses 1-5: The Purusa Suktam
1 Countless heads hath purusa and uncountable endless eyes --innumerable feet, When purusa moves, so does all of creation move as one. Truthfully, Purusa is unlimited, boundless and all pervading, his wisdom fills the entire world and is beyond the grasp of human hands to clench.
2 This Purusa is all that yet hath been and all that is to be; The Lord of immortality which waxes greater still by food divine. That very food is he as well.
3 All that we see is but his glory and if we had the eyes for it, he is more than all of this. All of creation is but one fourth of him – all beings and things are an intimate part of him. Three fourths of him rest in eternal life divine
4 Although three fourths Purusa reside above creation still, all of this which is known are but his parts --all that eats and all that eats not appeared from this single one part of purusa.
5 From this primordial purusa came forth the bright and shining Universe – the verdant earth and creation became his body and encompassed (pascat) him.. Again, make no mistake, from out of this bright universe was purusa himself created, [otherwise he would have no existence and no way of knowing himself]. Again from him a bright all encompassing self luminous space was born; again purusa from viraj-adhi (bright self luminous infinite space) was born (jata).
Kaivalyam: As Ultimate and Absolute Unconditional Liberation
In modern societies (especially "Western"), coarse overly objectified and materialistic values have tended to dominate the field of Western man's awareness. This neediness for acquiring things, and being trapped therein, occurs because of ignorance -- the primal separation/rend from conscious recognition of primordial luminous space. It's all in the mind.
Thus, many have become obsessed with the possession and manipulation of so called external "objects" or seemingly materially solid things as an ersatz dominant goal, which too often habitually fragments and alienates the participant from an interactive and satisfying wholistic relationship with body, mind, breath, energy, nature, and source. Hence, true happiness and healing often becomes subverted, while the truth becomes perverted. When yogis speak about happiness, the dissolution of the citta-vrtti, and kleshas, they do not mean comparative advantage or simply a relative and temporary happiness -- a freedom "from", possession of an "it", transcendence of, escape or alleviation from suffering in a relative sense. Rather yoga is about accessing, abiding, and resting in a lasting and ultimate, absolute, and causeless (causeless because it has no prior cause. Nothing created it. This is true unconditioned naturfal happiness and freedom -- the experience of spontaneous, unqualified, true, and lasting wholesomeness and openness without falling back into attachment (raga) or aversion (dvesa), which forms the basis of egoic ignorance, and hence, the condition of delusional suffering. Thus, such freedom is not a freedom "from" any "thing". It is not an escape or an aversion; but rather it is unconditional and independent from conditions. Kaivalya occurs when all personal karma is put to rest, and thus one rests in their own true natural state (swarupa-sunyam) undisturbed, termed nirbij (seedless) samadhi. Strange as this may seem to goal oriented persuasions, this unalloyed happiness, joy, luminosity, love, and openness is to be experienced HERE AND NOW. Abiding in and emanating from Primordial knowledge is our natural state, spontaenously arising without a need to impose concepts upon what-is-as-it-is.
Certainly, the novice practitioner will start the yogic quest immersed in variations of seemingly disconnected experiences, form, duality, and samsaric afflictions, but after consistent practice one's awareness and sensibilities become sharpened, heightened, and expanded, eventually aligning with and becoming informed by the integrative whologram -- the unconditioned state of liberation-- kaivalyam. I used to say that kaivalyam is not experienced fully in the beginning, although some glimpses may have filtered through the veil. I used to say, that eventually it dawns that no independent "thing", no separate object, no cause, nor condition as fragmented, independent, or containing the appearance of a separate "self" apart from the whole appears -- where the practitioner is an intimate part of a vast and wondrous whole/whologram. But now, I think it is better stated that everything exists in the natural condition, whether we recognize it or not. Not recognizing it (avidya), thus becomes an opportunity for the appearance of an open-doorway -- the portal to the whologram. In truth, we reside in primordial ever-presence. That is our natural and inescapable condition. All because one may tend to hide in a cave, does not mean that the cave is not actually inside the mountain; the mountain is not part of a mountain range, the planet, the universe, or collectively part of a process emanating from a primordial source. That sourceless source (uncaused) itself is uncreated and unborn.
Another example, is that human beings may build a small town in a large meadow or valley surrounded by forests. The town may grow large buildings, so that inside the buildings one may not notice the trees or forest, but they are still there. The meadow still exists within the forest, even if man has forgotten. Only in the integral or wholistic sense do these objects exist (interdependently). So too human beings are manifestations of a timeless unlimited universe, which can be traced back to primordial source. That is our true conditionless condition, if we are aware of it or not. That is how we can see all things or objects as reminders or reflections of that ever-present great timeless continuity/integrity. That is the interdependent principle that creates integrity and destroys ego. The egoic process is the construction of a manmade city and its walls, devoid of this wholistic context. Egoic "reality" is a contrived isolation, an artificial attempt to close down, protect, insulate, and as an escape of the ego from what-is-as-it-is.
Only that which is nameless, formless, unborn, and all pervading (the param purusa imbued with unlimited spaciousness and omnipresence) can be said to be inherently real and independent. That is the stateless realization of Kaivalya. Through practice WE shall see that this authentic and lasting happiness is not dependent upon "things" or temporal conditions. It is not due to absence in any sense, but is only due to lifting the masquerade -- the realization of a totally integrated all inclusive Universal Self -- a life that both acknowledges and is filled with sacred primordial presence. This realization can not be obtained with the manipulation of words or the intellect, because by its nature it can not be defined in human terms/words. Universal and timeless Reality is the same for all species and not limited by linear time. That which is all inclusive contains us. We can only contain it when we become "it" -- when we identify with the Great Integrity as-it-is. This Great Integrity defines the human world, all other worlds, times, and dimensions, as well. That Reality is accessed HERE and NOW. Humans can do well with philosophical systems, but it is valuable to know the limitation of such systems, i.e., where philosophy, ideology, and religionism ends, and where authentic yoga begins.
It is well to recall that back in Samadhi Pada I.23-27, that isvara, (the inner teacher) is identified as the param purusa, the ishta deva, the clear self-luminous light free from all attachment (emptiness) which the essence of one's own true nature.
This Translation has Endeavored to be Free from Samkhya Bias (where Kaivalyam itself is Effortlessly Free from both Freedom and Bondage)
It's valuable to acknowledge to the reader that the bulk of the translations of the Yoga Sutras contain the standard interpretation of the word, kaivalyam, based on samkhya philosophical prejudice/colorings, as a state of isolation, separation, withdrawal, negation, avoidance, or escape, which to a degree may be either considered to be transcendence on one hand, or an aversion, a schizophrenic break, or catatonia, on the other hand. Samkhya is correct, only in a limited sense, that separation or distinction is valuable (asamprayoge) to disambiguate the mind's tendency (citta-vrtti) to falsely identify with the delusion of a separate self (asmita), which is called egoism (a klesha). Asmita-klesha, itself, is an isolation from unity consciousness, of course, thus asamprayoge can at best be considered only a preliminary phase, not the mature fruit, as kaivalyam. To use the discriminatory powers to isolate, preserve, and insulate "self" is a perversion (asmita-klesha) according to Sri Patanjali. Rather, what is really dissolved in yoga is dualistic mental afflictions, the idea of a separate self/ego and the apparent independent mental projection of an external fragmented "world" consisting of separate objects.
A yogi must wholeheartedly embrace the true self-nature of existence and non-existence (swarupa-sunyam) in samadhi, which is no separate self at all. If a self is to be ascribed it is the Universal Self (purusa), which when experienced within all beings and things (including one's own body), leads to ultimate unconditional liberation through complete karmic dissolution (kaivalyam). Dissolution of what? The self/ego sense. This error occurs because samkhya also misunderstands swarupa-sunyam (samadhi), interpreting sunya as a negation, rather than the non-dual open doorway to holographic unity. Samadhi is the process of embracing the transpersonal non-dual all encompassing Integrity. So then an isolation or negation from isolation (separation) itself or a negation of negation is effected. Hence, negation is an incomplete and temporary state. It does not occur without an affirmation. When that negation is dropped then integration happens by itself, naturally. Indeed, the instrumental means of how this non-dual liberation (which is not a separation) is accomplished forms a central theme throughout Pada Four -- Kaivalyam.
Thus, within the scope of authentic yoga, kaivalyam (as ultimate liberation) is not an escape or avoidance "from" any "thing"; it is not an aversion, hatred, fear, a dislike, denial, ignorance, or even a desire in the common usage of the word (as all kleshas and karma are eventually burned up through yogic practice). It is not a relative isolation, avoidance, control over, repression, transcendence from, an overcoming of, nor denial of anything in any form. Kaivalya is not achieved through strife, from control over anything, aloofness, nor transcendence. Indeed transcendence has to be given up as well. Simply all impediments (kleshas, including asmita klesha), dissolves and the yogi abides in the Uncolored Universal naked NOW awareness, which discloses and reveals all-that-is as-it-is in naked self liberation without any tinge of striving. Kaivalya is freedom from no separate "thing" at all. Kaivalya is liberation without any conditions. The context is sunya (open emptiness) and within that limitless all inclusive non-dual context, wherein all content is alive, interconnected, and interdependent.
Samkhya makes this error repeatedly, translating kaivalyam as isolation or aloneness for other reasons as well. One reasn is that they misinterpret abhyasa-vairagyabhyam (not understanding the practice of non-attachment) defining it as aversion. In fact, the *continuous* application of vairagya is effected by the virtue of the yogi's ability to abide continually in one's total *integration* (state of yoga) of eternal spiritual presence in the HERE and NOW and forever. Abhyasa-vairagyabhyam culminates on swarupa-sunyam. In short, samkhya does not understand non-dual engagement as non-attachment to results. Thirdly, Samkhya does not understand that Yoga, as an integrative practice, predates Samkhya philosophy by over a thousand years. Yoga's use of the word, purusa, corresponds more closely to the ancient Vedic definition as well as to other ancient indigenous Indian practices predating samkhya philosophy.
If a careful and dedicated student diligently desires, they can undergo a comparative study with other translations identifying the presence of many instances of samkhya bias and colorings. They will find that it is here in Pada Four, that the academic dualism of the numerous philosophic interpreters of Patanjali are often taken to its most absurd heights. One will find (should one engage in a comparative study) that an institutionalized and self serving academia have misinterpreted sutra after sutra (which was originally intended to be a non-dual affirmation especially celebrating yogic practices in order to realize samadhi) having reduced it to trivial, useless, and irrelevant philosophical and metaphysical speculation and abstractions.
In this translation kaivalya cannot be seen in terms of freedom from anything, in terms of escape, fear, transcendence, aversion, or even striving for an attainment (terms which all stem from duality as their basis). In kaivalyam (as an absolute and unconditional liberation versus a relative liberation) there exist no conditions of a relative (normal) freedom from anything -- there is no where to go, no where to hide, nothing to be separated from, rather yoga occurs, at its end, in abiding in one's true natural self (swarupa). This translation however will approach Kaivalyam as an affirmation -- as a non-dual state of unconditional happiness and freedom. As such it will be the opposite statement from the samkhya dualists who abhorred existence, nature, and experience. Therefore this commentator indicates that the better English language translation fo Kaivalyam is simply Unconditional Liberation.
Thus in pada four, Patanjali affirms the end of striving, where our mindset no longer is occupied by the distinctions of a separate object of concentration nor a separate estranged observer, but rather, is unitive by elucidating how all the parts are integrated into the unitive whole, regardless if they appear as seemingly physical objects or as mental objects. where all apparent differentiated phenomena cease to be fragmented pieces as such, but rather empty of an independent self nature (swarupa-sunyam). This is not done by negating, demeaning, or excluding nature or diversity, but rather by including it within an all embracing unitary, complete, and perfect integration of awareness and experience. As such this heralds the end of the malaise of relative and comparative objectification processes (in nirguna). As such it is not reached by objectification or differentiation, but rather by its release. It is not realized by the intellect (buddhi), by manas (the ordinary mind), by will, by separateness (asmita), aversion (dvesa), or by any other klesha, but rather through true vision (vidya). True vision (vidya) is instantaneously realized when we have finally given up the former - having released them. This surrender occurs simultaneously with genuine spiritual experience, from the expansion of consciousness wrought from authentic practices which evoke this sentient SHIFT in beingness.
All analogies or words are by definition ultimately inadequate, when one attempts to describe the boundless and immeasurable -- the Infinite Mind. One such image is the mahamudra, the open sky or clear heart space, the Great Expanse, the Great Intrinsic All Pervading Perfection, which is a simultaneously occurring synchronicity of holographic multi-dimensionality. Another "image" is the multidimensional unification of the microcosm and macrocosm as in the symbolic representation of the hologram often represented by the Sri Yantra (mystic diagram). Distinctions between the terms yoga, swarupa, nirbija samadhi, kaivalyam, param-purusha, and isvara. are not necessary once we enter the sacred mandala. But to Patanjali's credit, he does not get lost in symbolic representation, analogy, nor images. Tat Tvam Asi!
So, if we read the Yoga Sutras in light of what Patanjali says, assuming that he was a Mountain Yogi (versus through the dualistic and academic glasses of samkhya), it will serve to shine light on vital yogic topics for practicing yogis and yoginis. If we take yoga as integration, a connecting process, and unification of body, breath, mind, and nature HERE and NOW (basically as a non-dual, tantric, and wholistic perspective) then kaivalya becomes an unlimited all inclusive experience. Again we will assume the non-dual Mountain Yogi transconceptual (nirvikalpa) and transcognitive (asamprajnata) assumption is Patanjali's implication, as the embodiment of a liberated being (jivamukti) in an awakened body/mind who has aligned their entire being and opened up the pathways of light for the rays of the sun to shine through as a living testament to embodying eternal spirit HERE and NOW.
As arudimentary inquiry intoyoga, by first differentiating between the striving for freedom as an escape from "something", as distinct from the natural propensity (like a flower moving toward the sun) toward a state of ultimate liberation (which brings with it not only the end of sorrow, but the original state of unconditional happiness), we can approach the profundity of the freedom from freedom. Ultimate liberation is not from freedom from embodiment and existence, but living and expressing a free life as a Jivanmukti.
Patanjali never says or indicates that yoga is other worldly or transcendent (even though scholars, religionists, dualists, and intellectuals, want to impose that type of institutionalized and sterile conclusion). Rather liberation is in the acceptance and integration of the eternal Present. HERE, the yogi must be able to drop fear, aversion, clinging, preconception, conditioning, samskaras, and ignorance (avidya) in order to reside HERE. Indeed this natural propensity toward ultimate liberation and unconditional happiness is innate. When it becomes thwarted by negative conditioning, traumatic events (samskaras), abuse, the withdrawal of light and love, and negative conditions brought about by negative past karma, then the samsaric wheel starts to spin in terms of a neurotic and vicarious life, in terms of suffering and afflictive emotions, and perhaps even more bad karma, until sentient beings awake into NOW awareness HERE.
Again, if we look at the Yoga Sutras as a meditation field manual or guide book" to be consulted when there is difficulty or need, then, we can see that Patanjali is referring to ultimate realization through practice, which leads to full seedless samadhi in this very lifetime -- in our actual life experience. Once samadhi is realized in yogic practice, as jivamukti, then it is to be embodied in ALL OUR RELATIONS – at all times. Any action coming from that very sacred and profound non-dual Clear Heart Space which manifests in the world (as behavior) is profoundly transforming -- it has a touch of divine love to it. Patanjali thus is not attempting to give us a moral code, rules, techniques, formulas, or even methods of attacking the world, but rather ways of first getting clear and free ourselves (reestablishing connection with Source) by successfully realizing the "fruit" of yoga sadhana. From that unitive place of intrinsic knowing combined with (extrinsic knowing), subject/object non-duality in co-emergent trans-rational action naturally and spontaneously co-emerges.
This reflects the enlightened view that we can not help others out of ignorance, but only out of wisdom, which follows that we strive for enlightenment IN ORDER to help "Self" – in order to heal self as others -- in the non-dual and non-separate sense as all other beings. This type of wise action is manifested in natural love, empathy, compassion, and equanimity, which are skillful means. Meditation is simply another practice which Patanjali is trying to help us utilize and master. Meditation (dhyana) more than amy other yogic practice allows us to come to direct face to face contact with the true nature of our own mind hence bringing the larger realization of swarupa-sunyam home in samadhi.
Liberation while still alive in this body (Jivamukti) is the goal to bring home HERE and NOW. An essential point, then, is that an inspired meditation practice not be seen as an escape, withdrawal from, or transcendence from "the world" prakrti or the gunas) like many dualists often assume, but rather as an instrumental means for liberation and happiness for both self and others. Because of the prevalent conventionally perceived dualistic split between nature and spirit, body and mind, prakrti and purusa, form and formless existence, shakti and shiva we will start off healing that rend as a fundamental error of perception (avidya). Hence, we will assume that, in truth, primordial consciousness and prakrti (nature) are our natural uncontrived situation, only that most of us have fallen into modifications of the mind field (citta-vrtti), hence we do not recognize our original true nature (swarupa) or the true nature of nature.
As we study Kaivalya Pada (chapter Four) we will see that Patanjali is describing yoga as a pathway of connection between the absolute and the relative, Spirit and Nature, Mind and Body -- Consciousness and Being – the unification of the objective world with the subjective world -- the integration of ultimate truth, happiness and freedom in order that it will become embodied and expressed. As such, Patanjali presents yoga as unification and integration -- as the process of disclosing the underlying all inclusive non-dual self-existent integrity between consciousness and being, sky and earth, crown and root -- as swarupa -- as the completion/flowering of our natural unconditioned authentic true “self” nature, which is the completion of yoga. In fact, for the accomplished yogi (the siddhi) they reflect in their arms, legs, voices, and mindstream the embodied union of primordial consciousness with nature, like the full moon reflects the sun.
Therefore, what appears as a gulf between the eternal present and linear time -- eternal and temporal -- undifferentiated and differentiated -- absolute and relative are conditioned artificial delineations (separations) based upon limited experiences and conclusions. Is it not simply a programmed, conditioned, and acquired process, rather than a reflection of Reality-As-It-Is? Reality and Truth appears to be challenging or "heavy" to deal with, only because of our fixations to our past held belief systems, samskaras, and mental conditioning (citta-vrtti); while it is that very conditioning which meditation approaches, faces, attacks, disrupts, cuts, breaks, and frees the mind, ultimately releasing the mind from all conditioning --all prior mental habits. And it is emptiness meditation, which transcends the words completely, which goes well beyond the process of human mentation and contrivation, of which Patanjali eloquently attempts to describe (in words) -- emptiness meditation.
From the Iso-Upanishad
Om shanti, shanti, shanti
That is infinite, this is infinite;
From That infinite this infinite comes.
From That infinite, this infinite removed or added;
Infinite remains infinite.
Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!
Tat Tvam Asi!
Kaivalya is not conditioned nor contrived; it is not made or compounded. It is natural, ever-present, and truly self-existing, hence it is ALWAYS present and accessible, requiring nothing. It is recognized as-it-is when the thick obscuring smog of the citta-vrtta have become lifted, thus revealing a boundless and timeless vista. It is our natural uncontrived unconditional home. It is not separate from embodiment. Programmed ignorance once released as non-recognition (avidya), makes it only seem absent. It is available at each moment and at each step if we should recognize it or not. By recognizing that tend to not recognize it -- that we may be ignoring it -- that it is absent, we can open space for THAT to be recognized.
Swami Krishnananda, General Secretary of the Divine Life Mission, describing the process said:
"This is a graduated movement, systematic action, taking place automatically because of your absorption in the concept of God - true God, not the false God that you have created by the segmentation of your individuality from That. Whole being is concentrating itself on whole being of the universe. The whole of your being is immersed in the thought of that whole being of the whole cosmos. The whole is meditating on the whole, not a part meditating on something outside it, because anything that is outside the part will also be a part only. A finite thinking something else is like the finite thinking another finite, but here is something different. The whole thing is concentrating on the whole in which two wholes merge - Purnamadah purnamidam purnat purnamudachyate, purnasya purnamadaya purnamevavasishyate. The whole has manifested itself as the whole universe, and the whole universe is before you as the whole which you yourself are. The individual is a whole, the universe is a whole, God is a whole - so several wholes are rolling themselves one over the other - Purnamidam purnat purnamudachyate, purnasya purnamadaya purnamevavasishyate. The whole has come from God and the whole is going back to God. Fractions are not coming from God, and fractions are not going to God, and fractions don't exist also even now. Even now, as this moment, fractions do not exist - there are only wholes rolling one over the other. If this meditation is possible, you will be sure that you will never be reborn into this world of sorrow. This is krama mukti, gradual salvation, stage by stage, arising from the lower material condition, biological, psychological, etc. until you reach utter perfection of spiritual existence.
But the scriptures, Brahma Sutras, tells us that there is also known what is sadyo mukti - immediate salvation. It means salvation is immediate; it is not by stages, slowly moving like an ant. That can take place if your being is bursting with God just now - I can only use that word. Your whole being is bursting because of the entry of God. Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa Deva used to give an illustration - God entering man is something like a mad elephant entering a thatched hut. It will simply break the hut into pieces, pound it and destroy it into pieces and go. If God enters an unprepared individual, you will have a shock from the core of your heart; you may fall sick and you may perish at that moment. But you need not perish if you have been a built-up, strong personality with disciplined practice right from the beginning. The whole of God enters you at one stroke - what will happen to you? That is called sadyo mukti. You are not entering God - God is entering you; that is the difference between krama mukti and sadyo mukti. When you want to reach God stage by stage, it is called graduated, gradual salvation. When God wants to enter you, it is like the ocean wanting to enter the rivers and not the rivers entering the ocean. Can you imagine God wanting you? Is it possible? If you want God you are a blessed person, but if God wants you, what is that condition? If you can imagine what it is, you are freed just now. Hari Om Tat Sat. God bless you."
When we experience ourselves as "interconnected" and interdependent (not as a separate self or ego), then grace dawns as our conscious awareness of “THAT fructifies– revealing the holographic essence imbedded in all things and beings -- a naked uncontrived awareness which intrinsically exists by itself without any need of elaboration naturally appears without boundaries. Knowledge and insight (jnanam and prajna) comes by itself naturally and effortlessly. That is the samadhi of swarupa-sunyam (of no separate self as stated in III.3) and is identical with Kaivalyam. With it siddhis and booms are gifted without ever striving for them. When we are able (ability is another word for siddhi) to commune deeply with nature and our natural unconditioned true Self, or in other reflections of the Whole Self, such as samyama on inanimate objects such as rocks onepointedly, then naturally and holographically, insight of their true nature is communicated. This can happen with herbs (as an herbalist/shaman) or with patients (as a doctor/shaman), or with our karmic condition reflecting on "self" as well springs of true "Self-knowledge" and insight in a transpersonal sense. To this end THAT Self is experienced as boundless, transpersonal, all pervasive, and Endless. In a sacred and powerful place, Grace cautions us to be careful about what to ask for; and thus as we increasingly focus upon the profound process of yoga, Kaivalyam becomes progressively approximated, then aligned, and then synchronized down into our very bones and channels.
Thus ultimately, in Pada Four, Patanjali answers the question of what is ultimate liberation through the processes of yoga (in the context of yoga that is unitive; that means to join together -- or to merge as one, to connect with and access Universal Source in ALL OUR RELATIONS. In the context of yoga practice (as a process of consciously accessing this connection) one experiences yoga. Thus, Kaivalya includes the freedom from "limited" identification- from separateness itself -- from ego – the freedom from isolation, spiritual self-estrangement and corruptive influences. HERE it becomes ultimate freedom, because only in ultimate unity – within the Great Integrity of all ALL OUR RELATIONS is there no longer a possibility of being separate – no longer a possibility of being “free from” any thing else. HERE all fear and desire have become remediated. This is the freedom of freedom as a natural state. Thus, kaivalyam is isolation (freedom from) only in the sense that it dissociates itself from the process of aversion, isolation, duality, and separateness or ego itself. However, more importantly, it is a process of the dissolution of the ego and thus the dissolution of isolation itself. Yoga is thus culminated with the realization of nirbij-samadhi, where any separate-self is seen as part of the illusory process and is has natura immunity from being drawn into the corrupted/fragmented mental state. Thence all vrtti, all bias, all perturbations and agitations of the psychic field are known to exist in the empty field of separateness, while Kaivalyam being our natural non-dual unconditioned state rests in wholesomeness, integrity, and completeness. Such can only be known HERE and NOW.
Nothing other than an integrative sense of primordial presence can adequately compensate for dystopic samsaric feelings. It is the way of authentic yoga to fully affirm and experience that Reality HERE and NOW on this planet, in this very life, and in all lifes, not through negation of the omnipresent manifestation of original mindabsent from the context of the breath and body. In fact, it is the yogi's responsibility to embody such, not negate it, even in one's last breath on earth. Hence, the value to humankind and as a boon to the world arose as astanga yoga and what grew out if it as hatha yoga as taught by Siva, Maheshvara, the Mahasiddhas, Matsyendranath, Goraksa,, Gherand, Babaji, Lahiri Mahasaya, Paramahansa Yogananda, and is found in the Yoga Upanishads. The authentic teachings of yoga are non-dual and holographic, wherein the microcosm and macrocosm are united as one great continuous body of integrity -- where origin and manifestation meet as an ever-present healing love -- as the all-compassionate mind.
"In your body is Mount Meru
encircled by the seven continents;
the rivers are there too,
the seas, the mountains, the plains,
and the gods of the fields.
Prophets are to be seen in it, monks,
places of pilgrimage
and the deities presiding over them.
The stars are there, and the planets,
and the sun together with the moon;
there too are the two cosmic forces:
that which destroys, that which creates;
and all the elements: ether,
air and fire, water and earth.
Yes, in your body are all things
that exist in the three worlds,
all performing their prescribed functions
around Mount Meru
He alone who knows this
is held to be a true yogi"
Siva-Samhita, 2.1-5, trsl. by J. Varenne, Yoga in the Hindu Tradition, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1976.
Practice: Since the breath occurring in the human body is the vehicle for unitive embodiment and experience and consciousness HERE and NOW-- the essential playground between spirit and nature; there will be added throughout the commentaries on Pada IV practical hatha yoga analogies in terms of body (asana), breath (pranayama), pratyhara, dharana, dhyana, and samyama as tangible examples.
Kaivalyam Pada thus brings it all together as a functional experiential yogic practice in Satchitananda! Enjoy!
"The moon and sun unite
within your body when the breath
resides in the meeting place
of the two nadis ida and pingala.
It is the spring equinox
when the breath is in the muladhara,
and it is the autumn equinox
when the breath is in the head.
And prana, like the sun,
travels through the signs of the zodiac;
each time you inhale,
hold in your breath before expelling it.
Lastly, an eclipse of the moon
occurs when the breath reaches
the abode of kundalini
via the channel ida,
and when it follows pingala
in order to reach kundalini,
then there is an eclipse of the sun!
The Mount Meru is in the head
and Kedara in your brow;
between your eyebrows, near your nose,
know dear disciple, that Benares stands;
in your heart is the confluence
of the Ganges and the Yamuna;
is to be found in the muladhara.
To prefer 'real' tirthas
to those concealed in your body,
is to prefer common potsherds
to diamonds laid in your hands.
Your sins will be washed away...
if you carry out the pilgrimages
within your own body from one tirtha to the another!
who worship the atman within themselves
have no need for water tirthas
or of gods of wood and clay.
The tirthas of your body
infinitely surpass those of the world,
and the tirtha-of-the-soul is the greatest of them:
the others are nothing beside it.
The mind when sullied,
cannot be purified
in the tirthas where man bathes himself,
...Siva resides in your body;
you would be made to worship him
in images of stone or wood,
with ceremonies, with devotions,
with vows or pilgrimages.
The true yogi looks into himself,
for he knows that images
are carved to help the ignorant
come nearer to the great mystery."
Yoga Darshana Upanishad,4.40-58 trsl., J. Varenne, Yoga in the Hindu Tradition, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1976.
Siddhi (proficiency) come forth because of inborn traits and karma (janma), from herbs and trees (aushadhi), mantra, the kindling of the psychic fire (tapas), and from self-realization (samadhi).
The treasure of this sutra is that siddhi is inborn. It is natural and in the genes, what is known today as DNA. It is not separate from life, co-creation, co-evolution, or Siva/Shakti, yet it can be brought forward. In other words, we are not helpless victims of pre-destination, but like a gardener cultivating a field, its innate potential yield can be maximized and brought into fruition. Please remember that. Its blossoming can be catalyzed through action such as practice (good karma), herbs, mantra, tapas, and wisdom, realizations from one's natural state of samadhi. Thus this sutra finishes Pada 3 as the culmination of all attainments.
One witnesses that a yogi may experience siddhis through practices that lead to samadhi, such as tapas (cultivating psychic heat), mantra, janma (favorable traits due to past good karma) and the wise use of herbs, thence one's latent abilities become enhanced through the wise utilization and communion with nature's blessed medicines and elixirs (aushadhi) all of which in turn trigger/activate the inner evolutionary circuits (including the body's neuro-endocrine system), clear out obstructions in the nadis, and in general remove obstructions both in the cellular memory and neuro-psychic pathways. The wise use of certain herbal combinations are known to the tradition of yoga to stimulate/catalyze the production of inner elixirs (soma, amrita, etc.) which are also activated by other factors such as the yogic practices of asana, pranayama, mantra, dharana, dhyana, samadhi, tapas, and the creation of beneficial karma (punya).
Notice that in chapter three the practice of samyama brings forth many abilities (siddhas), because one must utilize samadhi in samyama practices, so too is the process enhanced through inborn traits, the wise use of herbs, mantra, tapas, meditative absorption and simple samadhi all by itself. Chief among the producer of siddhis is the state that samadhi offers. From the boon of samadhi, the third eye, transcendental knowledge, and transensual perception become accessible as if the body/mind were plugged into a huge main frame computer which encompassed all the data since beginningless time. In short, samadhi is inborn and natural (sahaj), but the normal human being's mental apparatus has become distracted and negatively conditioned. This samadhi desires to break through at anytime, but it has become chronically repressed especially in a repressed, ignorant, prideful, aggressive, greedy, and fear-filled culture. Once the past karmic conditioning has been weakened through yoga practices, the original pure light of samadhi begins to break through more often and spontaneously. Thus through positive action (karma), one generates positive future results. This is sometimes called cultivating merit (punya). However, positive attributes such as "merit" should not be assigned to an ego. Therefore, it is wise to see this as creating positive space, conditions, and circumstances so that a successful practice can take off. In this way cultivating wisdom and merit converge as skillful means (upaya) with the result that past hangups dissolve simultaneously as creative, evolutionary, and compassionate expression emerges.
Parents notice that children are born with innate propensities, wisdom, personality traits, and abilities. These inborn/innate abilities (janma) are due to past karma and genetics. They are conditions that have causes positive, negative, or neutral). In short, "karma" can be positive force, hence the wise generation of practices such as yam/niyam and astanga yoga in general.
All beings have inborn traits and special abilities, certain propensities to attain the highest realization (the ripening of isvara's intrinsic seed source or innate Buddha nature), but few realize this potential in their incarnation, where past personal karma is completely extinguished. Similarly, our genetic constitution at birth is the result of past karma (causes). One who has looked into the situation fully knows that infants are born into this world with their unique karma, some possessing amazing advanced abilities (siddhis) right from birth, while others may be severely blocked or lacking either physically and/or psychically.
These latent abilities can be enhanced and awakened through the practice of tapas (see II.1 II.43), because tapas eliminates and redirects the outward flowing misdirected and dissipating energetics of a distracted dualistic mind thus providing the fuel to catalyze the latent but natural evolutionary inward flow (kundalini) which is our natural evolutionary potential. Tapas thus is an important practice in quickening our success (vibhuti) because our energy is no longer diverted in disparate ways.
Likewise the practice of focusing upon the specific dynamic energetic qualities of specific sound vibrations (mantra) will open up previously dormant pathways that activate heretofore hidden abilities. As such mantra is transconceptual (nirvikalpa).
The understanding of the spiritual use of nature's botanical and mineral energetic potentials (osadah) speaks to a natural sympathetic and benign relationship between the human being and the forces of evolution from a common Source where all beings and things diverse and manifest have sprung. Understanding that synergistic relationship as an effective tool in human physical, energetic, mental, and spiritual evolution allows the yogi who understands nature and her ways to join into a mutual synergistic partnership that activates various psycho-neurophysiological processes precipitating in liberation from illness, increased strength, power of concentration, wisdom, insight, union, and other heightened potential abilities. That is so by an inherently intelligent process speaking to the fact that human have co-evolved and owe their existence not to their own wiles, but due to an intimate intelligent co-creative relationship with nature (shakti). Human beings in order to know Source/creator HERE and Now must follow creation back to its source by eventually seeing creator as an intimate part of Creation HERE and Now in order to realize these benefits in ALL OUR RELATIONS.Practice: It is noteworthy that all of these methods are natural from birth and life, even natural (sahaj) samadhi. If we take samadhi to be natural, while the citta-vrtti, kleshas, and karma are the result of unnatural programming (negative conditioning), then samadhi is our natural unobstructed state as well when the coverings called ignorance are removed/purified. As such this connection with our true nature is effected by all the limbs of astanga yoga as well as the advanced practices of hatha yoga such as pranayama and asana where the nadis are purified and activated to the highest extent, thus facilitating a balanced synergistic resonance between Sat (beingness) and Cit (pure consciousness) -- Nature and intrinsic seed source -- purusa and prakrti,, sun and moon, HA and THA in direct unitive and intimate experience.
Although specific techniques have been developed for specific abilities, Patanjali recommends that the wise sadhak does not become sidetracked on specific siddhis, but far better, focuses upon developing ultimate liberation -- freedom from spiritual obstructions to realize nirbija (seedless) samadhi. See III. 3 and III.37.
Nature's evolutionary force is inherent in all living beings. All beings are born from that. It flows forth in abundance naturally and brings forth evolutionary change even in this human birth.
antara: inner, inherent; intimate; innate or intrinsic
parinama: transformation (here as evolution)
prakrti: nature; evolution; specifically here it is meant as the evolutionary force.
apurat: a flowing forth of abundance.
Commentary: Diverse new embodiments (jati-antara) are innate,. They are conveyed (parinama) through the ever abundant flux of the implicate creative natural evolution (prakrty-apurat). Thus the abundance (apurat) of nature (prakrti) via natural transformations of evolution (parinama) is the natural flowing forth of the abundance of the innate intelligent evolutionary power, which is as we learned previously, nature's inherent interaction with an ever present intelligent spirit (the innate interaction of purusa and nature), As such, it is an intrinsic potential of our true essential nature always awaiting to be born, although normally hidden and repressed by conditioned ignorance (citta-vrtti) in the neurotic samsaric mindset.
Natural evolution is the everchanging reflective force of ever-presence (primordial knowledge). It is the all creative mind and creates all abundance. It is the natural source. It is the driving force behind the diverse intelligent forms of birth, life and evolution. "We" as animals exist not in a fixated state, frozen in time and space. Rather phenomena is ever changing (parinama) as diverse multitudinous creative manifestations or evolutionary (prakrti) flux of the divine Creatrix (prakrti). As such in Reality, WE collectively, are THAT -- whole, since in non-dual Reality. WE are not separate entities (egos) and phenomena as such does not exist apart. Here we have the ABILITY to channel this infinite abundance into many avenues of creation -- giving birth in embodied love (jati-antara-parinama). Here we take "prakrty-apurat" as the innate abundant (apurat) power of nature (shakti) while "jati-antara-parinama" is the ability to give birth and embody to our highest innate transformative potential which is entirely natural. Naturalness is opposed by human perversity and artificial constructs/fabrications stemming from false identifications (separate self or ego).
Unceasing spirit, harmonized in the natural bodymind is a natural expression of a balanced and harmonized prana, mahat, prakrti, and purusa as a whole. Isvara or purusa is naturally inherent and manifests through the evolutionary process as nature's abundance (prakrty-apurat) as it is inside all generated forms (jati-antara) as the intrinsic source of spiritual inspiration. When we are allowed to acknowledge this innate wealth and participate in this natural innate process consciously (when we approximate or align with our intrinsic natural state) through embodiment. Then Infinite dawnless Source thus manifests as the diverse and rich expressions of the one Universal Spirit – within the overall boundless transpersonal context of intrinsic kinship and unity of ALL OUR RELATIONS.
Although there exists only One formless eternal and absolute Beginningless Source (creative Spirit), THAT manifests in diverse forms in a continuous creative evolutionary act of creation which appears within temporal space and time, as evolution. This great creative force is our greater identity which we have dissociated (dismembered) from through negative conditioning (through the aberrant acclimation/distraction of avidya). In this way reincarnation is also explained and is at the same remediated.
Practice: Here we take our rightful place in nature (evolution) simultaneously in synchrony with intrinsic seed/source.In hatha yoga asana, we flood the physical Annamaya kosha), mental (Manomaya kosha). energy pranamaya kosha), and wisdom vijnanamaya kosha) bodies with consciousness and prana. We learn to recognize Source within and extend it to ALL OUR RELATIONS.
Although spirit, breath, energy, wisdom, and nature (shakti) manifest within the physical body and are reflected by it, they are also accessed through conscious interaction with the body. That is the effective utilization of conscious hatha yoga practice as a two way street. We are not "just" the physical body", but rather the physical body and breath are an open gateway to the infinite (they are intimately related) -- it is an intimate part of the Great Integrity (when the ego gets out of the way) and transpersonal and transcognitive (nirvikalpa) wisdom prevails. This is possibility can be contemplated while walking, sleeping, moving, or resting.
Swami Venkatesananda says:
"However, congenital endowments are not accidental, as the incidence of birth is determined by the character or quality with which one's whole being is saturated."
"In Raja yoga the practice of samadhi is an ongoing process, ending only in enlightenment. This samadhi, although it is interrupted by all sorts of things is really not affected by what happens with the body, or to the body, in this birth or in the next birth, because the truth is there always [as samadhi]."
Samadhi is-as-it-is (as swarupa-sunyam) but most of us are looking the other way. We can't "get it" in the head/brain or intellect, but in the hridayam -- in the Hridayam --with the whole body -- the large body -- the body of purusa/prakrti united, siva/shakti INSEPARABLE IN UNION -- with all sentient beings and all things -- fully enriched rich in biodiversity -- in the unification of mind, body, nature, and the true nature of self, of swabhavakaya (the integral state of embodied formlessness united with form) if you will.
In short the cause for samadhi is innate; it has intrinsic seed potential and is not dependent upon conditions. However yogic sadhana allows us to acknowledge this, honor it, feel it, and thus live in conscious harmony with it while here in the body as acting as an instrumental cause (nimittam) and arena, as will be elucidated further in the next sutra.
This evolutionary inborn creative force of nature is self initiating,, while the activities of a wizened yogi acts spontaneously to cultivate positive conditions for its abundance, like a farmer with a green thumb who cultivates his fields so that the seed ripens to its fruition.
tatah: from that
varana: coverings or concealing sheaths
bhedah: to remove or separate. To make a distinction
nimittam: causal ground or overall motif; instrumental cause; instrumental cause; the operative or incidental cause itself depending upon causes and conditions. An example is yoga sadhana. By itself mantra, pranayama, meditation, and other sadhana is not samadhi, but it can help bring such about. Samadhi is already here as our implicate reality, but the mental/karmic patterns of non-recognition (avidya) must cease.
aprayojakam: not initiating; not able to create momentum by itself.
prakrtinam: Manifestation of nature: natural manifestation; the original or natural form or condition of anything;, original or primary substance; cause original source; In mythology a goddess, the personified will of the Supreme in the creation (hence the same with the Sakti or personified energy or wife of a deity, as Lakshmi or Durga. In Samkhya, he original producer of ( or rather passive power of creating ) the material world ( consisting of 3 constituent essences or Gunas ( sattva, rajas, and tamas); Nature as distinguished from purusa (Spirit), as Maya is distinguished from Brahman in the Vedanta or Sakti as distinguished from Siva.
Ksetrikavat: One who cultivates the field, soil, or literally a farmer of a land (in this sense one who cultivates samadhi). In yoga, the yogi who acts in harmony with intuitive wisdom.
Commentary: Nature, as the evolutionary force stemming from the primordial source, has its own innate wisdom, but the lesson for the yogi who is not the initiator is to pay attention and act in harmony with primordial consciousness which nature conveys. To the uninitiated, samadhi may appear as manifestations of nature's evolution (mere phenomena) or may appear to manifest through apparently disparate causal means, as the conditioned and fragmented "world" of forms and appearances (nimittam) seemingl governed by cause and effect (karma). Phenomena are more than referents, operands, directors, or pointers to samadhi. Rather, they are open doorways to the Great Continuum which is samadhi -- they are the holographic bridge. As our inner vision widens, so too does our view of phenomena gain a deeper insight of its self-luminous primordial origin. As an analogy, the water is undifferentiated self luminous and compassionate clear light, while the field previously was dead; it now comes to life and light.
Just like a farmer with an alive innate sensitivity to the evolutionary intelligent power cultivates his fields intelligently through water gates and terracing, so too is the causal flow of our own inherent true nature nature directed, capable of being directed to manifesting and expressing our true nature in fruition. Through our intercourse, experience, and practices in life and nature/creation as the primary yogic arena, the coverings (varana) which have obscured samadhi as our true formless nature (swarupa-sunyam) are removed (bhedah), thus revealing the ever present underlying realization of primordial consciousness -- the Great Integrity and Continuity, naturally without necessitating force individual will power, or specific knowledge. Such operations occur naturally and intuitively like a cultivator with a green thumb who naturally gravitates spontaneously and intuitively toward cultivating both the soil and the plants as part of one’s larger family or kin – as Vasudev Kutumbhkam (the universe being one big family), as a partner or co-creator, out of a recognition of a preexisting integrative union and harmonization with prakrti (nature/creation) and hence with intrinsic Source. The yogi like the wise farmer is able to put it all together functionally to bring yoga to its natural and complete fruition. Just so a small and delicate seed has within it an intelligent blueprint which when placed in a sunny field, given adequate water, and the right soil conditions and weather will be allowed to mature to its evolutionary potential. So too within all beings exists the universal seed to enlightenment, which when conditions are ripened by the yogi who is guided by one's innate wisdom, will ripen into its highest potential.
Everything comes from a source -- a cause, which is another way of saying that nothing stands alone as a separate or independent "self". However, we are commonly trained to see things superficially (in terms of symbols or appearances), but not in terms of the one universal, holographic, intrinsic, seed-source that is innate within all. The more we get to intimately know our common all-creative Source, the more we are able to see it in all other beings and things. Such is not intellectual or book knowledge in terms of words, concepts, or the intellect, but an intuitive wisdom which manifests from direct experience.
Events and situations occur because of past karma and conditions, but we do not have to know the causal means (the how and why or workings of karma) intellectually, but rather live in harmony with nature as our own true nature for yoga practice to evolve and abundance to rain forth in our practice, as spiritual evolution or the evolution of human consciousness one innately wants to evolve and manifest naturally. That is the innate drive for continuity/harmony.
HERE in this realm of spontaneous evolutionary overflow (apurat) one action leads naturally into the next seamlessly and effortlessly. In that unitive state of yoga there is no need to ponder heavily or to think these events out analytically as to what direction to ensue, rather the one who is connected to Source is informed and guided by the ever present innate instructor. Hence practice merely allows for this natural self expression to self liberate. However when we feel ourselves disconnected. out of synch (in viyoga) then we can practice instrumental causes as sadhana (nimittam) to reconnect and effect natural flow, Practices which lead to this instruction, removes this non-recognition/ignorance and hence lead us to the innate causal flow of mind (the Continuum) which is our true purpose to experience and express unobstructed, unimpeded, naturally, and spontaneously.
Thus in yoga it is the practitioner's wholistic non-dual unitive identification of body, mind, breath, spirit which is the experiential territory and thus the field that is being attended to and cultivated by the sadhak (practitioner). Aprayojakam means without imposing force, going with the flow, -- without artifice, but naturally through establishing a harmonious interactive co-creative relationship. This is the natural enfoldment or evolution of consciousness without interference, resistance, or attachment such as some one with a “green thumb” goes about working in a garden as kin – as mutual participants in the non-dual reality of the eternal gurukula in ALL OUR RELATIONS. Thus this sutra assumes that like an inspired or talented gardener, the practitioner acts in harmony with an organic process, as a co-creator with beginningless Spirit which if cared for wisely is allowed to bloom and bear fruit within this very field (ksetrikavat) naturally. Like a master gardener one removes (bhedah) the obstructions (varana) and noxious material allowing the abundant natural potential to flow forth, bloom, and bear fruit. Here Patanjali says that a wise man does not mistake the process of removing the obstacles, with the natural tendency toward its innate attainment. The light illumines itself (it is self effulgent) but the shadow of the ego has to get out the way. Hence the major practice is let go of our attachments (vairagya) and there is none better than dhyana (formless meditation). Then samadhi comes naturally on its own accord when we open up space for profound transpersonal and transcognitive (asamprajnata) experiences. Such comes about through practice when the samskaras become loosened up and dissolved.
Practice: Likewise in an integrated authentic hatha yoga we know that the body, breath, nature, and mind are interconnected as one integrity. In conscious and authentic hatha yoga asana, bandha, and pranayama practice we open the flood gates of nature rich in prana and consciousness by removing (bhedah) the coverings (varana) of the occluding sheaths which have grown around like rust or weeds around the HeartMind who intrinsically and naturally desires its liberation. Here the gardener and the garden -- the cultivator and the field that is cultivated acts as one.
Below Swami Venkatesananda suggests that we no longer become hung up in goal orientation.
"To be so saturated does not involve acquiring or adding some new quality; for the transmutation of one' s nature is not effected by the introduction of a new cause but by the removal of that which obstructs the realization of that nature. The new practice is a catalyst and is otherwise useless: and people of different natures make different choices. As in agriculture: there is fertility in the seed and the soil, and effort is directed at the removal of the weeds and the pests."
"This sutra is introduced here so that you may not cling to the rungs of the ladder instead of ascending it; in order that you not fall in love with the boat and forget to cross the river. All your struggle and your sadhana is merely an instrumental cause, not a direct cause; it is not as though that without it the truth will disappear and the self become unreal. Don't think that all the sadhana that you are doing is of great importance. If you do, you are stuck in that sadhana."
"Don't think that sadhana is going to bring you enlightenment; enlightenment is already there. In accordance with the assets and liabilities that you have brought with you from a previous life span, you choose your path."
Dualistic consciousness ordinarily tends to be bonded to a limited and coarse artificial framework through the construction of the egoic mindset (asmita); but in relationship to the whologram, all manifestations emanate from the timeless integrity [hence liberation is always at hand].
nirmana: a manifestation or emanation; referring to a resultant and gross, coarse, physical form which has emanated out of other causal forces; a construction, form, fabrication, or contrivance derived from a pre-existing cause.
cittani: mindfields (nominative and plural). by way of the mind: of the mind; from the influence of the mind.
asmita: Ego sense or ownership through the deluded identity of possessing a separate self. One of the five chief kleshas (afflictions).
matrat: only; only to a specified and exact extent; limited to; the full or simple measure of any specific thing; the whole or totality of a specified entity; the one thing and no more; nothing but, only so.
Commentary: The mind becomes bonded to material forms as its own fabrications and projection (nirmana-cittani) through the limitation imposed by asmita-klesha (the egoic mind). An artificial framework of an I/it, subject object, duality is objectified. Among other things that is the error of three dimensional materialism which takes phenomena to be solid and permanent (rather than ethereal and temporary). Consciousness becomes bonded and limited to an apparent material form which creates the error of materialism -- the false assumption that only coarse formations (nirmana) only exist [which cover (avarana) the subtle and causal]. This limited way of perceiving existence (nirmana-cittani) called gross materialism is due from the more fundamental afflictive emotion of asmita (the false identification of a separate and limited self).
From the limited ego sense a limited state of mind is fabricated (citta-vrtti). Although primordial consciousness evolves naturally (as in Sutra 3 preceding) as the flooding of prakrti but it is obstructed by the interference of asmita-klesha (the assumption of the reality of separate self and things) where phenomena then "appears to be" (but in reality is not) exclusively bound to a separate form, bounded, coarse, gross, and inert as if it were a real independent thing (as if material form were dead and not moving). That mental error creates many woes of which one is the basic error of gross materialism, which is the false assumption that coarse resultant formations (nirmana) only (matrat) truly exist which cover (avarana) reality, where the subtle and causal mindstream become obscured or ignored. This limited and obscured, way of perceiving existence (nirmana-cittani) through the egoic mindset (asmita), where "things" are not perceived in their true relative interdependent co-arising context as an affect emanating from the Great Continuum, is due from the more fundamental obscuration (klesha) of asmita (the false identification of a separate and limited self) and avidya (the covering over of innate primordial vision).
Nirmana is the realm of manifestation and formation. If taken out of context from its energetic and primordial Source, it then takes on the form of pertaining to that which is separate (matrat), fabricated, constructed, contrived, compounded, or manufactured by the mind; i.e., "things" as reified by the conceptual mind rather than by how it-is-as-it-is. Matrat means limitation, boundary, or exclusion. Asmita (separate ego sense) is one of the five kleshas (obfuscations or occlusions of consciousness) which are the afflictions or poisons which are to be released of which stem from avidya (ignorance) and produce raga (desire or attraction) and dvesa (repulsion or aversion), etc. The world of form and matter is not a limitation when experienced as an integral part of Primordial Source -- as part of the the universal transpersonal continuity. Only when such a connection with Source is obscured via asmita-matrat will the natural flow of inspired instruction which is the human beings innate guidance become blocked and/or distorted. For example when an ego is split off from Causal flow, then it will crave a substitute union -- such as materialistic lust over objects, forms, images, status, power over others, money, privilege, pride, comparative self worth, or external authority. That happens when one's true "self" worth has become blocked. Then neurotic tendencies of false identifications (samyoga), transference, projection, and reification is ripened.
Nirmana, however when not extracted/separated by a reductionist mindset, is known to be an intimate part of the grand symphony governed by the unified/integrative living principle. That is the inseparable true nature of absolute and relative truth or what tantric Buddhists call svabhavikakaya, the realization of the integration of the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya which is Reality to those who have realized it. It is the unitive realm of dharmata and dharmadhatu. It is the seamless integration of undifferentiated consciousness (emptiness) with differentiated consciousness (form).
Likewise astanga Yoga, dhyana, and samadhi destroys the kleshas and leads to transcendental realization. Thus coarse mental habituations and hallucinations due to the action of the unpurified kleshas created by incessant mental fabrications arise from a primary klesha, asmita (the error of egocentric fixations), and are then transformed beyond even the most subtle manifestation of a separate self. Thus for example in dharana (concentration) or dhyana (meditation) practice (sadhana) any attempt to transform the mind and cultivate samadhi through fabrications stemming from asmita (the ego sense) are doomed to failure. All such symbolic schemes must eventually be dissolved into the non-dual formless all encompassing and transconceptual realm as surrender to the flood gates where prakrti (shakti) and primordial formless wisdom (siva) are inseparable. Through the portal of prakrti (shakti) then consciousness effortlessly extends even further to purusa (primal consciousness). At least this is the advice of sahaj yoga and the siva/shakti practitioners. hence the first move is vairagyam, openness, and surrender to the intrinsic universal teacher (isvara), our innate Buddhanature, Bodhi-citta, as true mirror like wisdom. See Sutra 34 "kaivalyam svarupa-pratistha va citi-saktir iti").
It should be clear that here, Patanjali is not only addressing the affliction of separate or small “self” in creating a severe limitation of “reality” as a false identification and an affliction, but also the affliction of asmita as applied to any separate thing, which as such, creates discontinuity from the world of ALL OUR RELATIONS – from the non-dual transpersonal Great Integrity, which is the realization of our natural unfabricated state (swarupa) -- the true Universal “Self”. Here Patanjali is directing us to the highest power of consciousness (citi-saktir) that is nothing other than the embodiment of our larger natural selfless Universal Self. All things and beings are interconnected as kin when the innermost heartmind has become recognized, activated, opened, and bloomed. They are one and diverse together in that great inseparable circle, which binds us all together in the Great Expanse of True Integrity -- vibrant and radiant clear light vivacity.
No "thing" exists in a vacuum, i.e., even the vacuum tube or vacuum in reality exists inside a room, on the planet, in the universe, and in relationship to evolution. The relative world exists in context with the rest of the universe; while to view it out of context would distort its "reality". Form surrounds form, but the boundless mind (the param-purusa) simultaneously surrounds all and is inside of all simultaneously -- all pervasive, universal, unchanging, and eternal.
Swami Venkatesananda says of IV.4:
"Any attempt to introduce a new transforming influence can only erect one more barrier - as such a construction of the mind-stuff (as the new influence or image) is obviously and only a product of the ego-sense ."
Swami Venkatesananda is clear. It is formless meditation (dhyana) with no image (devoid of form only) as in swarupa-sunyam, which is realized through a consistent and functional meditation (dhyana) practice which frees us from the hold of samskaras.
So here nirmana is a image or symbolic representation. It is incomplete and a false representation if it obscures the source (the causal flow of mind). and hence an ethereal temporal ghostlike shadow, a superficial emanation or form only which is lacking in true reality, depth, or universal context. The error of thought is that any entity (ego) exists in and by itself; i.e., that it has true inherent separate existence (an ego as an independent entity) -- independent of shakti and shiva (prakrti and purusa). For example out of control materialism or greed as a neurotic substitute for an ego sense whose spiritual well being, connection, and sustenance has been blocked/perverted so that one is seeking an ersatz fix. That is vicarious and neurotic "living", not enlightened living.
Practice: In authentic hatha yoga asana and pranayama the form (nirmana) gives us something to sink our teeth into and transform. These false fixations are broken up not as a goal oriented practice, but as an approximation and alignment-- through balance and harmonization of the breath and nervous systems -- through the synchronistic synergy between the process of the incoming breath and the outgoing breath -- between the HA and the THA, from the direct experience of this experiential dynamic in a transconceptual non-dual wholistic context in Now awareness which leaves a positive impression as well as a natural enthusiasm for its Continuity without it being forced or imposed from outside. This is sometimes called a process oriented or living system approach where the inner ecology and outer ecology (in terms of All Our Relations) are allowed to come into synch (sattva) through effective co-emergent practices.
From the the Great Integrity as-it-is arises the many and diverse. The many and diverse taken altogether form the great integrity and are open pathways simultaneously leading back to and reflecting the one; nay they are the one, when taken as an intimate inseparable part of the whole. As the many arise from the one, the one is revealed in clear vision through its parts as pathway.arises the many and diverse. The many and diverse form an integrity and are pathways leading back to the one; nay they are the one, when taken as an intimate inseparable part of the whole. As the many arise from the one, the one is revealed in clear vision through its parts as pathway.
prayojakam: prompting, instigating, a causative precursor or instrumentally causal and necessary factor, which has created the present situation; an essential catalyst/synergist.
pravrtti: Moving forward and outward, spinning forward, centrifugal, efferent as distinct from centripetal or afferent. Compare with pratiprasava and nivrtti (inward flow). An activity; a coming forth, an appearance, a manifestation, an arising, exertion; a course or tendency towards an object or outward direction.
bhede: a distinction or separation
anekesam: many or diverse.
cittam: the mindfield or field of consciousness
Commentary: Although there can be distinguished (bhede) apparently separate multitudinous and and apparently diverse (anekesam) activities and modifications (pravrtti) of spirit and consciousness, the underlying causative source (prayojakam) of these "states of mind" or "fields of consciousness" (cittam) will be revealed in the end as to be non-dual, not born of separateness. Rather in reality they are intimately interconnected as one (ekam). The rest is dualism, where fragments are not understood in the context of the whole-- where the boundless and limitless is chronically ignored. Authentic yoga, however, provides us with a discernable insight and felt-sense prompting that emanates from within ourselves and all beings. Hence, a sense of resonance, clarity, and coherence manifest spontaneously.
In ordinary analytical reductionist thought one most often breaks phenomena as well as mentation down into their parts, studying what makes them separate or different, but such techniques lack the ability to understand the relationship of the component parts with the functional whole in a functional manner. The yogic approach is wholistic and wholographic, where each part is first seen as part of a whole and is realized as such. This is the key to successful samyama, by first consulting with the whole. Samyama uses this technique to approach diversity first from the unitive perspective that assumes that all things are interconnected and no "thing" has an independent separate reality apart from the hologram. As such all things are doorways into the whologram.
For example man has an inner ecology (body, mind, breath, nervous system), but such can not not be completely known apart from the outer ecology of nature and evolution. The knower and the known are both part of this integral process, which can be discerned and traced back to the original mind. When human beings realize the inter-dynamic relationships between outer and inner ecologies, they are more enabled to effect intelligent change in their relationships in life by taking in the larger picture/context. Such ideas were developed not only in yoga but also by such people as the anthropologist, Gregory Bateson, who helped pioneer the ideas of " System Theory" (also called whole "Systems Thinking") which has been extended by Dr. Joanna Macy as General Living Systems Theory where she says:
"Originating in the life sciences and cybernetics, General Living Systems Theory constitutes a revolution in Western ways of knowing. This empirically-based alternative to a linear, mechanistic model of reality demonstrates the radical interdependence of all phenomena. In so doing, it converges with many indigenous wisdom traditions and also provides the conceptual foundation for deep ecology and new paradigm thinking. As a metadiscipline, it provides perspectives, tools and terms that help us integrate scientific findings with psychological experience, spiritual teachings and social change work. Discerning the dynamics of self-organizing systems (biological, ecological, social and cognitive), we will not only apply them to our chosen fields, but also gain insights into current global conditions and guidance for participating in the self-healing of our world. We will draw from pioneers of systems thinking, including Gregory Bateson, Erwin Laszlo and Donella Meadows, and enliven that study with interactive, experiential modes of learning."
See her most very excellent book, Joanna Macy, "Mutual Causality in Buddhist Teachings and General Systems Theory", SUNY Press, 1991. By "systems theory", Ms. Macy refers to Whole Systems theory; i.e., not considering " things" as unrelated, apart, independent, or separate from the whole. That is another way of saying that all things have no independent self, but are rather interdependent and co-arising. Also included in this "system" is nature and the evolutionary/creative power. The wholistic relationships of living systems as a Whole Systems mindset or wholistic thinking can be applied to anthropology, psychology, to the wholistic inter-relationships of the inner and outer ecology as well (the harmonization of the microcosm/macrocosm), hence a relationship to yoga as an integrative system is well established.
These natural "relationships" are obscured by the kleshas such as ignorance (avidya), and negative programming (negative karma). There the human being finds himself in a fragmented, disconnected, and confused world where he is not aware of the Great Continuum -- the true nature of his mental or emotional states and hence this milieu prevents fulfillment, completion, and lasting happiness.
Such unawareness is called avidya (ignorance) of which asmita (sense of separate self or ego) is a chief affliction. The affliction of asmita causes false identifications (samyoga) where form and images are thought to exist as separate objects apart from the one. In reality however, the All comes from All and truly exists only inside a profound non-dual Great Integrity. What is born from meditative absorption (samadhi) is stainless and pure. Hence meditation (dhyana) is a prime remediator.
Patanjali says that we must rejoin the stream of fresh pure water and bathe within its golden waters and thus the stains of the mind will be washed away -- the agitation (pravrtti) of the waters will become stilled, thus the innate overall single Source of consciousness (prayojakam cittam ekam anekesam) will be self revealed by itself as-it-is.
Through authentic yoga practice we increasingly experience this state of wholeness. Whenever we appear to be locked into fragmentation or when we may obsess on fear, anxiety, craving, or just feel stuck in a flat plane existential mindset, we can remind ourselves of the whole -- that the one big Self is available even though at this specific time/place we may not recognize it. Just this reminder of the one serves to allow us to release our hold and stuckness upon the specific situation and hence gain context, perspective, and greater insight upon our situation and process.
Practice: In authentic wholistic hatha yoga asana and pranayama the wise practitioner brings together dissociated parts of the body, the breath, emotions, and nervous system into a non-conflictive and fluid wholesome system not only in integrity within but in harmony with nature, evolution, and its intrinsic cause/source, hence the inner and outer ecologies -- microcosm and macrocosm are harmonized and brought into its natural highest fruition. Whenever we see our attention and energy engrossed in an activity, we can remind ourselves to step back into the all encompassing limitless hologram and manifest from there. Touching bases with increasing frequency in our daily lives quickens and informs our vibratory energetic dynamic in All Our Relations.
Swami Venkatesananda says:
"However many such images one may build within oneself, all these are projected by a single ego-sense in the mind-stuff, though the operations of the diverse successive images may vary, giving the false feeling of methodical and rapid spiritual progress."
This can only be fully understood IMO in context with IV.6.
Again Patanjali reiterates in different ways, the Reality of ALL OUR RELATIONS while summing up Sutras IV.2-5. Swami Sivananda in “Light of Yoga” says:
“Yoga is the method by which the finite self or the individual soul is united with the Infinite Self or the Supreme Soul."
Samadhi is ever accessible to the one who looks for it, who is dedicated, one pointed, devoted, and is ever spiritually passionate.
In that milieu (tatra) it is meditation (dhyana) that frees us from the residues born from (jam) past impressions (anasayam)
Commentary: So how does fragmented existence become remediated and made whole and interconnected again? How does the vrtti become stilled? Patanjali here recommends meditation (dhyana).
Anasayam: free from residues and impression i.e., devoid of samskaras.
Dhyana: silent sitting meditation. The process of absorption into the all creating boundless mind.
Dhyana-jam: literally, “born of meditation”.
Here Patanjali prescribes meditation as the cure for the residues of samskaras. Hence with the samskaras destroyed through meditation, the kleshas, vasana, and negative karma are broken up -- asmita is destroyed, thus restoring the “self” to final integration (in nirbij-samadhi) with the “Big Self” – Brahman or the Great Integrity without end or beginning – Infinite/Boundless Mind. Why is this? Because through meditation we are able to let go of attachment to our conceptual thought processes and cognitive I/it dualistic tendencies. This brings about pure or clarity of awareness once the citta-vrtta cease.
After some internal clarity is realized from additional effective practices we not only see the samskaras and become free from then in our own mindstream continuum, but that clarity allows us to see the samskaras lodged/stuck in “others” as evidenced in frozen belief systems (pramana) and other habitual patterns citta-vrtti as “stuff” they take from the past (smrti) and superimpose and veil it upon the pristine present – onto the Now Awareness thus occluding it. Yet it is usually very difficult for practitioners to work directly on the samskara itself (although asana, pranayama, and dhyana can do so indirectly). Rather working with the kleshas, karma, and vasana are more tangible, than the deeply buried samskara which is what must be loosened up and purified on a biopsychic level. Such requires concentrated passion to enjoy that space of innate freedom, spaciousness or a fresh breath of air as you indicate.
In astanga yoga, dhyana (meditation) comes after dharana (concentration and contemplation). In dharana one focuses on an object, but in dhyana the observer and the object of observation are not separated. Source is found as an innate continuous presence which success in dhyana (practice) reveals. Hence in that way Sutra 6 follows as a natural evolution from Sutras 1-4.
Again Swami Venkatesananda:
Hence, the no-image that is born of meditation is the best - because it does not create a receptacle for itself, entrench itself as a real image, and color the mind.
Swami Venkatesananda is clear. It is formless meditation (dhyana) with no image (no form), which through a consistent and functional meditation practice frees us from the hold of samskaras. Meditation (dhyana) is king of practices leading to he crown, samadhi. Yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyhara, and dharana prepare the yogi for success in meditation (see Pada II).
Practice: Wholistic hatha yoga practices such as asana, pranayama, bandha, pratyhara, and visualization are great aids toward successful dharana and dhyana, all of which inclines the practitioner to samadhi. In the pure form of dhyana, dharana is also abandoned as the yogi has emptied his mind of all artificially constructed conceptual modalities residing thus resting in the vast All Inclusive all creating timeless Mind Space, the ever present source of all intelligence. Experientially the meditator becomes sucked up into non-dual bliss -- the middle path free from extremes (sushumna nadi)
The actions (karma) [of a yogi who has become free from past residues through the practice of meditation] can not be measured, discerned, or grasped in ordinary dualistic conceptual terms, as either white or black, pure or impure, and so forth, as such a yogin's actions are no longer predetermined and limited by the dualistic bounds of karma; while the actions of ordinary karmically driven beings are governed by cause and effect and can be understood and characterized thus through a three-fold (trividham) classification.
sukla: white. stainless, spotless, unsullied.
asukla: not white, not soiled.
krsna: dark; black.
akrsnam: not black or not stained nor darkened
yoginas: belonging to the yogis: sattvic
trividham: threefold analysis (utilizing the thee gunas as elements of prakrti).
Commentary: Simply, Patanjali is referring to the difficulty in making definitive distinctions in regard to karmic circumstances in general. It is not that Patanjali is discounting the rule of karma, but rather that causes and conditions are only "generally" and imperfectly known to the intellect; while the specifics are too intricate and subtle to fully grasp conceptually. More specifically, it is not possible for some one with a limited frame of reference to accurately conceptualize something outside their mental framework of reference. For the ordinary human being, whose mind is immersed in the samsaric world of cause and effect, it is not possible to measure the actions of a liberated yogi, who is free from cause and effect. Such a yogi has gone beyond dualistic thought patterns completely. Please note that akrsnam and asukla, should not be translated as "bad" nor "good", rather they neither black nor white; e.g., not black and not white. A yogi's sphere fails the scrutiny of the ignorant.
"We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them."
~ Albert Einstein
Yogis (those who have become proficient in the practice of yoga, have meditated, and who have reached some degree of awareness and freedom) have burned off their karmic propensities and obstructions. They are liberated from the wheel of cause and effect -- from time, place, conditioning, and causation. Thus their actions are not dependent upon past actions. Their actions do not depend on effects of past causes. Their actions cannot be judged in temporal, dualistic, nor material terms, like that of others who are governed by the winds of the vrttis composed of karma, dvesa, raga, klesha, samskara, and vasana. Liberated yogis can not be evaluated within the framework of the conditioned dualistic mind-frame (in terms of the extremes of black and white). Here the originless beginningless unconditioned causeless cause arises spontaneously and is integrated in the yogis action -- is the yogis moment, as the yogi is an emanation of the evolutionary energy and primordial wisdom. One may ask, what is a causeless cause. It is the original, primordial, or unborn cause, which has no prior cause. It is uncreated, yet is all creating. Such activities devoid of karma, can be labeled mysterious, grace, magical, divine, or the play of Lila by others. In short, the sattvic activities of a true yogi are inscrutable to those whose reference frame is limited to the three gunas (phenomena) which is only an evolute of prakrti. Simply stated, it takes one to know one. Here, by an authentic yogi, we do not mean that to apply to novices who practice mechanized yoga and have no true realization.
Self-realized yogis do not limit themselves by comparative relationships, but rather live in a timeless endless unbounded multi-dimensional universal matrix. They traverse a multi-all-diverse holographic universe, which coemerges in each infinitesimal point. Such a context is not normally accessible to the average non-yogi.
Regarding those coarse eyes that imputes "reality", which is subject/object dependent, while being perceived through a samsaric lens, there appears to exist either chaos or a contrived order (belief), which fails the test of citta-vrtta. For a yogi, the hologram reflects an orderly causation and sublime simplicity, rather than chaos, confusion, and/or complexity. The yogi understands effects as a result of causes due to a combination of interdependent actions, which is the definition of karma, to which the ordinary mindfield (citta vrtti) is limited and subjected. That is the actual karmic situation, whether or not the the human being recognizes the relationship between the causes and conditions, or not. Phenomena does not change randomly, although the causes may be profound and outside the common man's limited scope of reference. There is an implicate order at work regardless if it is perceived or not. What are called coincidences happen merely as causation coming into alignment with ripe conditions (as coinciding vectors of causes and conditions). Cause and effect can become complex when former results act as causes for future actions, and/or when many former results combine together to influence future actions --where they become causes for future causes. When the yogi is profoundly aligned in harmony with the multi-verse, then a powerful allied affect. A yogi through practice learns about non-temporal time, vast space, and wisdom because they have stepped outside the samsaric karmic wheel. Causes for a yogi are neither "black nor white", or neutral. For others (itaresam or non-yogis), who are subject to cause and effect, but remain ignorant of them, their actions may be distinguished in the three fold terms of the gunas (rajas, tamas, or sattva). Please see IV.8 the next sutra for more on the gunas.
Another interpretation of trividham is that there are three ways of analyzing action (karma). The first two refer to dualistic and conceptual perceptions of white or black, good or bad, right or wrong, rajasic or tamasic, etc. The third way is the non-dualistic yogic way (sattvic) beyond the two extremes where the many emanates from the one. Here we must enter into hatha yoga energetic disciplines such as the HA (as rajas or solar) and the THA (as the moon or tamasic) to realize the non-dual middleway beyond extremes in the sushumna nadi which is sattvic. For a HA-THA yogi this is a living non-dual truth. In the context of a boundless, limitless, and timeless "reality" one can easily abandon dependence upon sequential yardsticks, while relying upon what is truly immeasurable. Here the mystery of vastness/bigness and small/infinitesimal also are dissolved in holographic light.
The main point pertaining to karma would be to keep in mind that past karmic seeds create shells/boxes, which occlude the present perceptive realm of action and tend to dictate and impose a future, which creeps up upon the ordinary man unconsciously, out of ignorance. That ignorance then can unfortunately displace the innate highest creative potential in the organic inspiring freshness of the moment. By abiding with this process of karma and recognizing it as-it-is, in the moment as it arises without ignoring or denying it, allows us to discern its previously occluded influence and hence through causal clarity based on wisdom (not reaction), the yogi becomes free of its influence which was previously unconscious and ignored. With more consciousness and light in our daily activities, eventually like the wisely cultivated garden, the innate seed of liberation will bloom in concert with the natural true spiritual self (swarupa-sunyam) -- our intrinsic potential Buddha (the Tathagatagarbha). This way the momentary fragmented excursions into the disconnect of fragmented "relationships" will naturally become disintegrate serving as compost for the true and rightful inheritance to blossom. This is how the sacred earth is built upon the compost of past karma. This is how the water and the fields meet with the fertile seed.
The karmic world (conditions) determined by past causes act as bondage (samsarically) as long as the ephemeral causes continue to arise and fall by being ignored or avoided. Some actions cause unfavorable circumstances and unhappiness; while other actions (such as wise and loving sadhana) are causes for future happiness and awakening. One action may have negative consequences leading to more bondage/samsara, while another action may create positive outcomes leading to liberation (called punya or merit). Other actions may be neutral in result. The point is that our actions of body, mind, intent, and speech have consequences that we can wisely determine. Hence wise action (such as free will) becomes possible through awareness. The more awareness, the more is the enhancement of this innate ability. So the actions of a yogin operate from a wider context, from that where the consciousness is attached to limited and fragmented objectives (the citta-vrtti).
So this gets us into how the observer experiences causality. We can look toward our "view" of causality for an answer, like what is cause and what is cosmology as-it-is. We could ask if causality and cosmology have to be different, if indeed a natural boundless and holographic cosmology (the multiverse or buddhaverse) was not fabricated, conceptualized, nor the result of mental bias or modifications (citta-vrtti). Then perhaps we could look at rainbowbody in light of that natural rainbowlight and embody that.
Professor Christopher Chapple translates this as:
"The actions of a yogin is neither white nor black; that of others is threefold."
Swami Venkatesananda says (keeping in mind that in IV.6. Patanjali mentions meditation (dhyana) as the effective practice to free one from the residues of past impressions):
The yogis' actions, springing from such no-image are therefore neither pure nor impure whereas in the case of others, actions are of three classes, kinds or types.
By "yogis", Patanjali means those freed from duality (not white and not black) and free from the limitations of the three gunas (phenomena as viewed from the sensual eyes alone), hence these yogis who see with the eye of the open HeartMind have reached liberation from karmic obscurations. In sutra IV.8 he continues to explain "the others" (itaresam or non-yogis), who are subject to cause and effect. So accordingly let us not bother further with reductionistic thinking in regard to the actions of yogis. That method of conceptual analysis does not apply, because the yogi lives in a sphere of unbroken continuity. That reality is not dualistic, fragmented, or broken.
In hatha yoga asana and pranayama the yogi consciously balances and harmonizes the incoming and outgoing breaths, the efferent and afferent nervous systems, the sky and earth energies, crown and root, sahasrara and muladhara, the mind and body, HA and THA, sun and moon, rajas and tamas, left brain/right brain, and realizes sattva (as a synchronistic and synergistic balance) so that conflict, dualistic tendencies, strife, and negative karma are eliminated. In hatha yoga, the yogi acts directly on the gunas and thus effect sattva. We work directly on the elements and the chakras to effect non-dual realization. We work with the asana, bandhas, mudras, pratyhara, dharanas, dhyana, and spread out in samadhi in the Great Boundless Celebration. That is exactly what we do until the need to do nothing supercedes and liberation is won for all.
"It is like a store of treasure
Inside the house of an impoverished man.
The owner is not aware of it,
Nor can the treasure speak.
For a very long time it is buried in darkness,
As there is no one who can tell of its presence.
When you have treasure but do not know of it,
This causes poverty and suffering.
When the buddha eye observes beings,
It sees that, although they transmigrate
Through the five gati
There is a great treasure in their bodies
That is eternal and unchanging.
When he sees this, the Buddha
Teaches on behalf of all beings,
Enabling them to attain the Jnanagarba (knowledge matrix)
And the great wealth of widely caring for one another.
If you believe what I have taught you
About all having a treasure store,
And practice it faithfully and ardently,
Employing virtuous expedients,
You will quickly attain the unexcelled marga (marga-satya)."
The Buddha, "Tathagatagarbha Sutra"
Thus, those who have no self-realization are (propelled by the winds of past karma) experience their habitual patterns (vasana) ripening (tad-vipaka) according to conditions (conditioning). Thus, their negative impressions ripen, or they do not ripen according to karmic interactions arising from the combinations of external elements (the three gunas) and manifesting in further mental propensities and conditioning according to causes and conditions, which are conducive (anugunanam) or not.
anugunanam: lending itself toward a specific or suitable quality (measured qualitatively by the gunas); qualitative conditions.
eva: thus, only
abhivyaktir: leading toward becoming distinct; leading toward discernment
vasanam: old habitual tendencies; unconscious or compulsive inclinations, habitual patterns; residual propensities.
Commentary: Without inner practices such as dhyana (meditation), one throws karma to the winds where one is ruled by habitual tendencies (vasana). Therein, conditioning/past programming rules and liberation is bound.
Karma matters, when causes come together, conditions appear together, and events coalesce as if they existed by themselves; however conditions are empty of their own cause. When causes and conditions come together "things" appear to happen -- karma ripens and bears results. Ignorance of this process is samskaric bondage and slavery. Conversely, yoga practice matters. It creates positive conditions for liberation by breaking up the samskara and vasana. Eventually, through wise practice, the unconditioned natural state sponatneously self arises. More so, non-yogis, who ignore karmic circumstances, experience great difficulty in understanding natural (non-karmically) governed people or events. The non-practitioner thus finds it difficult to change their habitual patterns (vasana) of thought and behavior, and become stuck/fixated in repeating unappy consequences. But the yogi who knows causes and conditions is able to cultivate the growth of his innate seed of awakening that abides in the non-causal Buddhafield, which is timeless, unlimited, unconditioned, and non-sequential, just as a wizened gardener creates favorable conditions for the seed's innate operating instructions to take root, ripen and mature. In that way, seemingly samsaric unconscious forces of the egoic mindset dissolve into the immeasurable all encompassing frameless framework of the hologram, thus the vision of sacred earth is experienced and expressed, heaven and earth, nirvana/samsara, crown and root, mind and body, void and form, etc. are synchronized.
For such yogins, events thus occur with integrity and seemingly magically from that transconceptual and most wondrous space. In short through engaging upon the awareness processes itself (self awareness), the yogic practitioner can gain merit and wisdom sufficient to overcome previously created karmic propensities, thus liberation becomes possible because the yogi has decided to introduce effective actions/practice which bear the desired remedial results breaking up old karmic patterns. This leads to liberation.
It might sound like a dichotomy that in order to overcome past karmic negative propensities, one first has to recognize the law of karma, but in fact AFTER this recognition/awareness is applied, then the innate natural unconditioned underlying reality can be recognized. Self-knowledge brings about power and our innate abilities to liberate ourselves. Freedom and ability come from consciousness. Some may speculate that liberation is possible without recognizing their karmic fetters and habits, while all they need to do is to recognize their innate natural true nature swarupa or buddhanature. Such is also can occur after the samskaras are loosened because of spiritual practice. That will be examined in another sutra. Here, suffice it to say, that it isn't events that dictate karma and future events (for that would be a hopeless milieu); rather it is consciousness and sensitivity (or its lack) which governs personal karmic outcomes.
Karma is thus not similar to theories of pre-destination, rather understanding karmic principles generally in daily life, is very empowering and activating. Even vasana (old habits) can be changed. New proficient and effective habits can be cultivated, while dissipative and destructive habits eliminated. Otherwise, the consciousness which was mired in the conditioned (karmically determined) mindset remains victimized by the winds of karma and subject to the vagaries of the gunas (the evolutes of external material forces) of which one has no or limited control, because one has no direct awareness/recognition of it. "Phenomena, conditions, or circumstance rarely are pereceived as-it-is when the mind is engulfed in the whirl of vasana and citta-vrtti. rarely then will self effulgent unlimited lighta nd love breakthrough into daylight consciousness unless the vasana are quelled, the karmic winds reduced, and redirected. Then a natural primordial evolutionary and holographic momentum is recognized, while acting as a director.
Vasananam are latent tendencies and propensities in the forms of subconscious compulsions, negative habits, reflexive patterns, etc. They are like an electronic circuit which performs a function or a computer program which performs a task. It sits in wait, waiting for the program call to be activated (by a samskaric residue) or the switch or button of the circuit to be completed. These switches, buttons, or "calls" of the program (karma) are samskaras (latent imprints in the cellular memory like the doping of a computer chip waiting for the current to be switched on). These circuits when energized form vasana (negative habits), which can be activated through external conditions and sensory input when karma (external situations of cause and effect ripen or come together); or they may be activated by internal; mental/emotional conditions (themselves the result of karma). Thus “the buttons" of reflexive habit patterns, conditioned responses, compulsions, and even the seeds of dormant and potential future karma become pushed -- vasanas, as a result, become activated. So when karmic conditions ripen, a vasana will manifest (due to past karma).
Such is a two way street, i.e., past samskara and karma create vasana and klesha, while acting on klesha and acting out vasana can in turn create even more negative kleshas and karma. These are eliminated through sadhana (here specifically meditation), or failing that, by applying conscious awareness (viveka) upon the contents of the mind and emotions (pratyaya) in order to determine if a vasana or klesha triggered by a deeply rooted samskara or if past karma has diverted our energetic union and attention (cit-prana) away from our core/heart center. This ialso interfaces with the practice of authentic swadhyaya (self study). It is again, consciousness/awareness that liberates us and provides power/ability. Eventually, viveka approaches its heightened completion as viveka-khyater, where holographic presence is recognized as the all-mind context.
This conscious abiding with our processes eventually will reveal and dislodge the underlying biopsychic imprints and energy signatures of the more subtle samskara itself. Then one applies vairagya, tapas, isvara pranidhana, or other such remedies. Less subtle than viveka, is dharana, dhyana, and samyama when one concentrates/focuses on the breath, the chakras, or other upon specific objects of concentration as reflections of the microcosmic/macrocosmic unity.
In daily life then, we often carry around with us old "baggage" and issues from the past which become triggered again and again until we stop ignoring, denying, or running away from their mechanisms.
Vasana can be remediated or nullified by creating positive sattvic conditions in the home, by associating with sattvic/spiritual people, by living in a sattvic spiritual environment such as a forest ashram, peaceful power spots, holy places of pilgrimage, near enlightened beings, by sadhana (spiritual practice), cultivating compassion, loving kindness, equanimity, wisdom, and so forth. Tantrics on the other hand believe that the former method may simply create a temporary state of dormancy for the vasana, which is still capable of coming out in the future through dreams, in the bardo after death, in future lives, or other karmic events when conditions ripen (karma) and so on. Tantra proposes methods to root out the vasana by creating conditions which bring it to the surface in order to exorcise it and attain catharsis, purification, and exorcism. Vasana, samskaras, past negative karma, and the kleshas are all like hidden ghosts, shadows, or inner demons carried around by people like dark clouds in their aura preventing them from having a creative and happy spontaneous and open life.
Practice: In functional hatha yoga these demons can be recognized, accessed, and exorcised via intelligent actions and movements of the body, breath, neuro-physiology, energy circuits, and penetrative wisdom. A daily hatha yoga practice is a powerful remedy for negative tendencies, dysfunctional habits, stuck patterns, lack of enthusiasm/inspiration, and stasis in general capable of bringing forth positive reintegration of body mind, energy, and awareness. Instead of being governed by habitual bodymind patterns and karmic winds, a functional hatha yoga practice introduces pranic awareness into each movement as an experiential exploration into the nature of mind and prana (cit-prana) and the way it is related to mental states and emotions as it is reflected in the neurophysiology, breathing, and bodily dynamics. In that context, prana, as the life force is no longer demoted to identification with a physical body apart from the whole, then it is known as a reflection of cit-shakti, the expression of the marriage of shiva/shakti in the living yogi. Shiva being the innate seed consciousness/awareness principle, while shakti is its dynamic expression in all of life. Thus hatha yoga discloses our essential nature, when practiced as such.
The images that are built in the mind and the actions that flow from them color the mind creating tendencies which manifest when conditions are favorable.
Also see II.13-15
Past psychic imprints (smrti-samskararayor) are held in place, being deeply hidden (vyavahitanam) as memories around (api) representational images, symbols, or forms (eka rupatvat) according to associations and circumstances of sequential (anantaryam) origins, place, and time (jati-desa-kala).
vyavahitanam: deeply buried or hidden; concealed.
anantaryam: succession; link; causal chain
samskarayor: deep psychic imprints or impressions
rupatvat: form, image; possessing form
Commentary: The psychic imprint (samskara) and its analogue cellular memory of past events which produced the samskara often are associated together as one event (eka- rupa) in the ordinary conditioned mind. That crystallization or coalescence is what is meant as a samskara. Thus a desire which is not fulfilled in the past forms a samskara (a repressive or reactive imprint and tendency in the future). Such can manifest in the future as a neurosis whose reactive mechanism is hidden (vyavahitanam) as if obscured in a fog, occluded, or a confused cloud formation in an image of desire and self gratification. even though this same compulsive unconscious mechanism may recur repeatedly (jati-desa-kala-vyavahitanam spy anantaryam) -- even through many lifetimes until one is awakened from the reactive mechanism. These samskaras when triggered (jati) by events or images (rupatvat) can also trigger (anantaryam) other similar kleshic mechanisms (not just attachment or raga) such as the reactive mechanisms of fear, anger, jealousy, pride, defensiveness, and other similar compulsive behavior in terms of similarity linked to place, time, or other similar characteristics.
Stimuli or "events" appear to be the cause which trigger the latent samskara, just as an image of a desired object, such as dog food, may cause a hungry dog to salivate. but really it is the observable stimuli that has become causal. It is our imbedded associations that we harbor around them, that events in time and place provoke (anantaryam) through the causal chain of karma kleshic reactions or not. For example some one may have been beaten badly and traumatized by some one wearing a red hat. Whenever that person sees some one wearing a red hat, that perception (of the red hat) triggers associations with the past pain, fear, and trauma reflexively. This reactive pattern that are triggered by external stimuli is not due to the external stimuli itself nor by the perception, rather it is due to the associations of the reactive mind that such images triggers. Since yoga teaches us how to release these patterns and deeply imbedded trigger points all the way to the cellular level, we can become free of such biopsychic patterns and associations.
When we wake up, we become free of causality. We see so called causal events as results of prior causes, but we are no longer reflexively controlled by them. Neither do we ignore the stimuli/event. Simply our response is very different. Again depends on how the observer is experiencing "causality" -- how the yogi is informed of the meaning of events. When mind and matter or consciousness and being (spirit and nature or Shiva/Shakti) are integrated then the cosmology lines up perfectly with the cosmology as-it-is. That is the union of the microcosm and macrocosm. If indeed a natural boundless and holographic cosmology (the multiverse or buddhaverse) was not dependent upon a separate observer who stood outside of a separate Reality; i.e., differentiated Reality as-it-is then our view would coincide with out fabricated layers of conceptual bias, reification, or imputation free from mental bias or modifications (citta-vrtti). When we are totally present and attentive with what is-as-it-is, then the doorless door can be walked through. Then perhaps we could look at and perceive the rainbow-light body in light of that natural primordial rainbowlight coming from a boundless unlimited primordial multidimensional space, embody, and express it naturally.
When we awake to our true nature – real true self or Buddha Nature (Tathagatagarbha), then vasana, samskara, klesha, karma, and vrtti are destroyed. Samadhi is our natural unconditioned ongoing potential Reality, but it is widely ignored and obscured through negative programming (karma, klesha, vasana, and samskara). At first we experience temporary awakenings, but the residual samskaras draw us back into kleshic abs samsaric existence. Yoga practices act as instrumental causes. Here Patanjali recommends meditation as the major remedy. Without realization, the consciousness is bounded subject to the vrtti. We will see that the bad habits as vasana are all built up by samskaras, klesha, and karma which are annihilated through functional yoga practice.
It is a well recognized pathological mechanism in the psychology of trauma that a symbol will remind us of a past unresolved painful experience or event to the point that the symbol gives birth to the original painful experience triggering dissociative escape mechanisms. Such events become misidentified as a cause of pain, while in fact it is the old unhealed/unresolved pain locked deep within memory which is the cause of the pain. Thus a specific color, taste, sound, tonality,word, smell, object, sequence of events, etc., may trigger such a reaction and re-traumatization. Since the trauma victim can not easily recognize what is going on when these unconscious mechanisms are triggered, they can easily confuse and project that the image, form, symbol, or representation is the threat or is actually causing them harm. In this misidentification one shoots the messenger and is ruled by the demons of one's shadow world. The remediation of course is to confront one's demons as self projections and thus fear is also destroyed. We will see that much of Kaivalya Pada is concerned on how to remove these samskaric triggers from past trauma from our cellular memory and thus become liberated from compulsion, false identifications, and unconscious activity.
Swami Venkatesananda again says:
The relation between the actions, the tendencies they create, and the manifestation of these tendencies in behavior may be vague: especially when the behavior and its antecedents are separate in time, place, and embodiment - yet the latent impressions (tendencies) and memory are identical in nature.
Here Patanjali makes a cogent observation; i.e., that memory and samskaras are of one form (smrti-samskarayor eka rupatvat). They are concomitant. hey all react the sam,e way, albeit with different causes and effects. Forms and representation images (rupatvat) are temporary and ever changing. They are liquid and malleable. Compare that with nityatvat (in the next sutra).
Practice: These psychic imprints also show up in the nervous system and neuro-physiology. Hence, they can be accessed by a kinesthetically empowered asana and pranayama practice. One looks for pre-existing restrictions, hard spots, resistance, tightness, constriction, tension, fear, pain, numbness, and disturbances of the breath throughout the body/mind, and then moves both awareness (cit) and energy (prana) through these regions simultaneously in order to establish bodymind integrity and free flow/function. Hence, overall and specific fixated behavior, mechanisms, and dissociated habits can be quantatively affected by equivalent, but opposite, countermeasures that act as remedial activities (remedies).
For example in astanga yoga, the yogi can intercede and positively change his/her karma through practices that create favorable outcomes, which can be experienced both in the future and the present. The yogi can burn up old samskaras and alter latent tendencies through an awareness centered yoga practice that melts them down. That occurs more easily when our yogic practice is dedicated toward surrendering to our greatest potential recognizing our innermost innate teacher (isvara) as a variant of a functional application of isvara pranidhana. This is explained in the modern medical principle of neuroplasticity.
"Or, kulaputras, it is like a store of treasure hidden beneath an impoverished household. The treasure cannot speak and say that it is there, since it isn't conscious of itself and doesn't have a voice. So no one can discover this treasure store. It is just the same with beings. But there is nothing that the power of the Tathagata's vision is afraid of. The treasure store of the great dharma is within beings' bodies. It does not hear and it is not aware of the addictions and delusions of the five desires. The samsara cakra turns and beings are subjected to countless duhkhas. Therefore Buddhas appear in the world and reveal to them the Tathagata-dharma-garbha in their bodies. And they believe in it and accept it and purify their universal wisdom. Everywhere on behalf of beings he reveals the Tathagatagarbha. He employs an eloquence which knows no obstacle on behalf of the Buddha's faithful. In this way, kulaputras, with my Buddha eye I see that all beings possess the Tathagatagarbha. And so on behalf of bodhisattvas I expound this Dharma."
The Buddha, "The Tathagatagarbha Sutra"
These (samskaras, karma, and vasana) being devoid of any innate cause of their own, being conditioned (anaditvam), they become the ersatz cause for perpetual desire in a futile/compensatory attempt to achieve union and wholeness.
tasam: of these
anaditvam: Not supreme, not causal (acausal), standing behind, void of self-cause. Derived from adityam or pertaining to the primordial. "An" meaning not. Thus, ANaditvam, connotes not primordial.
asisah: passion: impulse or desire [for continuity]. Motivation or intent for fulfillment or completion
nityatvat: perpetuity; eternity; endless
Commentary: These mechanisms (tasam) such as vasana, samskara, and karma have no ultimate independent cause (anaditvam) in themselves, but rather are compounded, fabricated, and constructed. They are the result of a fragmented mentality (as described in Sutra 9 above). That is because the continuity and interdependence of ALL OUR RELATIONS(the principle of one big family, Vasudev Kutumbhkam! -- The Universe as One Family) has become violated and broken through negative conditioning. The non-dual transpersonal Great Integrity with beginningless primordial presence has become suppressed/inhibited. Hence, as a result of this repression, the samskaras, negative habitual tendencies (vasana), and negative karma has created a false or neurotic substitute passion, which only hides its self existing inherent interconnectedness, interdependence, integrity, and completion.
In reality, all phenomena must be ultimately viewed as a continuous *process* and integral (in context) with eternal Source (beginningless time -- the never-ending which co-exists in the eternal now). In clear lucidity, there is no separation, but the negative mental habits have become perverted and corrupted. When we lose that inherently reflexive connection between Infinite Source (Primordial or Boundless Mind), which is our true present condition in context of Now Awareness, then in that fragmented disconnected predicament, there arises a desire, craving, anguish, suffering, and the manifold neurotic compensatory mechanisms to ameliorate that unfulfilled need and/or fulfill this apparent gap/absence, which desires to assuage the pain of this discomfort and suffering. Thence, the habituation to continual craving and mechanisms of compensatory consumerism manifests (asiso nityatvat) as an ersatz replacement.
This is the first noble truth of Buddhism, i.e., that ordinary dualistic life based on the rend of a separate self (ego), creates a neurotic type of craving and suffering, because it is placed within a dualistic and artificial linear setting (place and time) that is defined as being separated/alienated from the Source of evolution and nurturance. Such an artificial mental construct creates a disharmony and discontinuance, albeit a common malaise. Thus, in trauma, a rend or split occurs where the experiencer attempts to dissociate and flee from the pain and suffering, numbing that part off from the whole, which in turn creates a sense of lack, absence, longing, craving, or desire, which results in a frozen state of unfulfilled but familiar discomfort (asiso nityatvat). Remediation back into wholeness is effected by being able to meet and own up to all our experiences in continuity. Thus, santosha (complete fulfillment) is experienced in each moment. To realize that goalless goal -- that complete remediation, meditation (sadhana in the form of dhyana) is practiced.
So according to the above, in the relative world of causes and conditioning (pratityasamutpada in Mahayana Buddhism) all things/beings are in Reality interconnected and whole; but the normal man who is lost in fragmented consciousness does not see it as inherently interdependent. Rather the ordinary dualistic view is that separate phenomena is "real", independent, fragmented, and hence disconnected. In that fragmented and corrupted milieu of consciousness, the individual has mistakenly defined oneself also as separate and independent, and thus constructs the conditions for perpetuating its own craving for what is lacking/absent. This primordial craving for wholeness/completion cannot be adequately compensated for in terms of substitutes. Only the reconnection to primordial Source will so suffice. Therefore, Patanjali is saying that such a disparate view of separation or dualistic existence causes us to fall into discontinuous, disrupted, and fragmented consciousness as well, which in turn allows the negative karma to operate upon us without our knowledge as we ignore/deny it in avidya (ignorance) or just call it normal semi-conscious dualistic unawakened existence.
In meditation we bear witness to these mechanisms without coloring them with judgments (good/bad, horrible/welcome, ugly/beautiful, desirable/undesirable or feared, painful/preferred, etc). We realize through practice that it is counterproductive to incessantly analyze the cause of these judgments just as it is dysfunctional to try to inhibit them, but rather to simply acknowledge the composite of these mechanisms as they arise (as vrtti), then release them as such and let them go; while going back to the Great River of Continuity – of the Great Integrity -- of ALL OUR RELATIONS which exists in the Sacred Present/Presence. From that perspective of the Great Integrity which is no place at all, we no longer have a need to analyze the source of the thoughts because we have arrived at the Source or rather we realize that "WE" in the non-dual and wholistic identification, are the Source. This is unity in diversity and/or diversity in unity -- the Great Integrity. By all inclusiveness (the Great Integrity) we honor all diversity, excluding nothing. Thus infinity is included in the one, not a bland or neutral homogeneity
Swami Venkatesananda says:
“However, it is difficult to determine their exact operation, and it is futile to analyze them. These memories and these tendencies are beginningless”
Karma ultimately stems from a primary disconnect or confusion of "self" as "other". Confusion, by definition, does not coincide with reality; rather it is corrupt. Following confusion with further intellectual elaborations only leads to further fragmentation and dissolution/distraction. Critical thought is very useful, but it has a limit as reduction. It is most useful in identifying citta-vrtti and its malaise, but differs from creative and unitive thought processes, as a precursor it allows us to recognize and then drop, that which is dysfunctional, thus it differs from the final product. Reductionism does not lead to consolidation/integrity or wholesomeness. This also is not an either/or proposition, but rather a both/and situation. The effect reveals the cause, just as the cause affects the result until karma has run its course and is extinguished in kaivalya.
It should suffice to state that the general cause of negative karma and ignorance, in general, is a primal ignorance (avidya), which is nothing other than ignoring primordial wisdom in the present Here Now of ALL OUR RELATIONS. Rather than to reify/objectify some "thing" labeled as ignorance, let us assume that it does not exist as anything other than a lack of awareness. Thus the awakening process is simplified as the process of becoming more aware of that of which, we are unconscious.
The same unawareness of the natural relationships human beings have as One Big Family (Vasudev Kutumbhkam) is the same as the unawareness of the relationship between cit-prana, prana-shakti, the life force, nature and Maheshvara. Unawareness reinforces forces that result in a fixated false identification which gives birth to what appears as a primal desire, but such neurotic desire never began as such. Realize that this ignorance and neurotic (false) desire is not eternal nor beginningless, rather it is the result of a primal split/fragmentation or corruptive process of the mental stream of consciousness. Although the law of karma is a fact, it is near impossible to know its intricacies. Thus it remains inscrutable to the intellect for the most part. Yet successful practices that dislodge the samskaras, karma, vasana, and graspings of the conceptual mind such as in silent sitting transconceptual meditation (dhyana), mantra based on the meaning underneath the sounds, pranayama (as a practice to expand our sensitivity and awareness to Prana Shakti), asana (as a method of integration of awareness and consciousness in movement), the practice of generosity, compassionate action, surrender/devotion, and so forth, are readily accessible effective methods to become liberated from the forces of programmed ignorance. Simply stated, realizing the true nature of nature, also is interdependent upon realizing the true nature of Mind. That realization will destroy ignorance, and hence the wheel of karmic existence.
This is a challenging sutra in that it easily lends itself to philosophical misinterpretation. In Buddhism liberation (kaivalya as unconditional liberation or nirvana) is defined as truly existing beyond karma, devoid of causes, uncaused, ever present, unlimited, timeless, and unborn as there was nothing that causes it, no prime cause or creator ( which after all would have to be caused,by another prime cause, etc ad infinitum). Hence, it is said in Buddhism, there is no creator god. In that sense no phenomena has an independent or true existence of its own; rather all phenomena is rightly determined to be interdependent. That philosophical position is easily misunderstood, because true existence has to be differentiated from the mistaken idea of separate/independent or own existence, which is not a common distinction. Here true-existence is the recognition of the primordial timeless wisdom/awareness that underlies the true essence or true nature of all phenomena and the universal common boundless space in which all phenomena can be said to truly exist. As long as we recognize shiva in shakti, the true nature of existence as a universal self-luminous empty essence is acknowledged so that shakti simultaneously reveals shiva as shiva reveals shakti. The undifferentiated ever-present, unitary, all-pervading, clear light never fades away from sight.
Vasanam connotes conditioning (causes and conditions). It is the conditioned mind as distinct from the unconditioned, timeless, boundless, and primordial wisdom-mind/awareness.
Practice: Yoga practices helps us focus in the present, concentrating our attention/awareness to the life force, to the evolutionary energy behind the life force (shakti), and to its origin (siva). This all comes together as the three bodies (nirmanakaya, sambhogakaya, and dharmakaya) coalesce as one fluid integrity (svabhavakaya) in ALL OUR RELATIONS. Siva is already in shakti. Shakti reflects Siva. Taking our blinders off is removing ignorance (avidya) and reside in pure vision (vidya). That is the yoga that Maheshvara taught and still teaches.
Such confusion held together by causes (hetu), results (phala), and their correspondences (asraya) are identified to be dependent upon conditional supports (alambanaiha). When these change or are dissolved (abhave), then the associated samskaras (samgrhitatvat esam) also dissolve (abhava).
abhave: dissolution or disappearance: lack of presence; devoid of conscious presence
samgrihitatvat: that which is grasped
esam: of these
Commentary: Vasana and samskara arise out of correspondences (asraya) and are supported (alambanaih) by causes and effects (hetu-phala) based on ignorance (avidya) or confusion. As such (having ignorance as its cause) they must be abandoned and dissolved back (abhave) to whence it came. Ignorance exists in ignorance, so a wise man allows such mechanisms of ignorance to dissolve by themselves (abhavah) when allowing the innate wisdom to perform this task (allowing it to melt in the light of innate wisdom – our true self nature by cultivating that (swarupa-sunyam). Wisdom displaces ignorance, truth displaces falsehood. Waking up displaces dullness and confusion. Durga Ma defeats all Maras. Karma and events are dependent upon causes and conditions (interdependent) because events (as we have learned) are not self caused (independent). Karma ends when these conditions and causes are expended. Things, situations, and events can not be successfully grasped (samgrihitatvat) by the mind as separate independent activities. Rather they are properly understood when causes and conditions are understood as interdependent and interconnected.
From Sutra II.4 we see that the primary cause (hetu) of suffering is avidya (ignorance, non-awareness, insensitivity, or confusion). It is self-defeating or futile to try to figure out confusion with the ordinary analytical mind or intellect because such is built upon the dualistic illusion of separateness (a basic fallacy). That limited context lacks integrity, as it is not the whole story. Ignorance can not reveal ignorance. The wise first have to recognize the operation of unawareness (avidya) in order to identify it and abandon (release) it, hence, becoming free from it. Thus analyzing the cause (hetu) and effect (phala) within the samskaric milieu that is based on an illusion only enhances the illusion. Such will not make sense or lead anywhere productive. Patanjali is suggesting that one has to let go completely of such grasping (abhave). This sutra is not about the non-being or dissolution of the body, beingness, objects, or elements. Such reflects only the samkhya non-being negative bias. Rather, it is the dissolution of the dissolute force; i.e., ignorance, of the grasping tendency of the dualistic mindset. When that egoic mindset is dissolved; then that which supports the corresponding causes and effects that support the grasping mindset of fragmented appearances, such as the samskaras, vasana, and karma are also dissolved. Working on one, works on all. Working on all, liberation is the result. The difference here is that the support for the samskaras is not "the world", but rather a misperception of the world. The underlying supportive cause being a limited and fragmented mindset, which is addicted to the citta-vrtta and dualistic mental patterns, in general. When that psychic support (alambana) for avidya) is dissolved (abhave), then samskaras have are no longer entertained. Again the problem is not phenomena per se, but rather the misperception of phenomena as being separate and having an intrinsic existence by itself out of the sacred context of the hologram.
This progression is not to be confused with merely the contemplation of the laws of karma (the world of cause and effect), which eventually discloses the intrinsic unity of the temporal nature of the relative world with that of the ultimate or absolute eternal as the ever present Reality as-it-is, which is a worthwhile contemplation. Likewise one need not contemplate the clothing of maya, who reveals brahman intellectually., Rather, when one realizes this relative truth of inter-dependence as the defining non-dual revelation of all things (pratityasamutpada) as-it-is, then a profound mutuality is realized, where the past limitations of the dualistic mind melts into the synchronicity that activates the pain-free energy body (central channel). What is revealed is beyond the realm of ego delusion, separateness, or ignorance. Thus, the Reality of the inseparable nature of Relative and Ultimate truth is entered upon as the vision revealing sacred earth.
On the other hand, ignorance, karma, and habitual patterns that attempt to seek pleasure in the grasping unto or running away from the continual rising and falling of "external" phenomena as a fixation upon seemingly solid sense objects and the processes of inhibition, confusion, pride, fear, desire, greed and the rest of the kleshas merely serve to feed and support vasanam. Such a samsaric state is ruled by psychic embedded imprints (samskaras) and vasana (past habitual tendencies). So, to sum up, those supports (alambana) can be dislodged through effective practices (sadhana), which is another way of saying that a focused aspiration and positive activities (karma) can get us to a natural liberated space where past conditioning (past karma, samskara, vasana, klesha, and citta-vrtti) no longer operate which leads to samadhi or kaivalya. In short when the support for the vasana (negative mental habits) are removed, the corresponding vasana, karma, and kleshas eventually fall away. The yogi thus eliminates the support for causes and conditions so that negative results cease or even do not even arise, while creating support through the accumulation of merit and wisdom which brings forth liberation. Yoga is very empowering because the yogi intercedes intelligently with expedient practices (causes) in order to create future conditions which facilitate positive awareness and ultimately liberation, rather than further suffering and imprisonment.
Swami Venkatesananda says:
“Yet, since these tendencies have a cause-and-effect relationship with ignorance (that is, they are the result of ignorance and also the cause of its perpetuation) they disappear when the cause (ignorance of the spiritual truth) is dispelled, and vice versa: they support and promote each other and are bound to each other.”
Practice: Since the acquired psychic imprints, samskaras, or karmic residues are imprinted upon our neurophysiology asana, pranayama, mudra, bandha, dharana, mantra, and dhyana are powerful practices that can dissolve them. For example in asana practice, one may find a physical area that corresponds to a psychic imprint which in turn was created by a past traumatic event. By working in that area consciously one discovers the mechanisms involved be it energetic, mental, emotional, and physiological. One learns to flood this area with consciousness and light, love and prana, while dissolving it, moving through it with healing energy which opens up the previously closed down pathways and thus allows for total purification, activation, and integration. Life, body, breath, energy, mind, and spirit are simultaneously reclaimed, coalesce, and emanate at the same time. Place attention back upon the hologram in All Our Relations.
The fragmented reductionist mindset reduces and demotes (bhedet) events of the past (atita) and future (anagatam) into separate, isolated, and fragmented frozen parts, at the expense of their essential true original nature (swarupa) as-it-is (dharmanam).
svarupato: in its own true form. In reality as swarupa-sunyam.
adhva: path; way
bhedat: distinction, to break down, to reduce; demean, demotes, atomize, to separate, to segment, the parts from the whole
dharmanam: Dharma is the essential uncompounded and unconditioned nature of phenomena, the universe. Dharma refers to the truth -- the uncontrived and unobscured laws of the Universe. However when "reality" is perceived by the fragmented conditioned mindset, then the word, dharma, simply means the nature of an isolated fragmented thing, its characteristics or qualities.
Commentary: That which has occurred in the past (atita) and that which is to come in the future (anagatam) are not really separate isolated states, but exist (asti) as they truly are in their true form (swarupa) when seen as a continuity (adhva) [in their inherent primordial integrity], but the ordinary mind tends to break them down, separate, isolate, fragment, freeze, and reduce them (bhedat), classifying them into countless qualities assigning symbolic labels in lieu of their essential true nature (dharmanam). The past and future are real in the sense of the integral continuity of the timeless Now; however our normal flat plane perceptions and imputations regarding events over sequential time are both fragmented and limited.
This is the authentic yogi's pure view. This is the way it truly-is-as-it-is (swarupa-sunyam) coming from the non-dual perception, which perceives reality as-it-truly-is. In truth, all dharmas are pure from the beginning, devoid of any separate independent self. "Objects" of cognition" are devoid of artificially created mental constructs. They are naturally interdependent, interconnected, and self-liberating. They reflect the Great Integrity of an undisrupted all encompassing timeless NOW. They are not frozen as solid entities as an artificial imposition of static existential time created by limited mental aberrations. When perceived in clear vision, all events are revealed as-it-is. They reflect the whole, like the virtuousness of a vast perfect mirror in timeless wonder. Objects of cognition are nothing other than the myriad manifestations of primordial ever-presence, where past, existential present, and the future are incomplete, limited, and fragmented approximations due to a dualistic misperception of a separate self and separate "other".
In obstructed vision, an object that is perceived as seemingly self existent, (asti) as a solid. material, substantial, static, frozen, independently existing, or permanent thing in linear time is a limited way of seeing (citta-vrtti). It is illusory, because it is not the way it truly is-as-it-is, because it is missing the wholistic context, the primordial non-linear process, and the interdependent dimensions, which bestows its full, rich, and complete true meaning. When phenomena are seen in their true form as-it-is (swarupa), then that vast openness of mind opens up a pathway/doorway to the Great Continuum of the transconceptual and non-dual transpersonal Mind of all the Buddhas, where conventions of three dimensional time and place do not rule. Hence existent "things" are then experienced through this timeless and boundless continuum, understanding how it got HERE and where it is going, as much as understanding how this body arrived HERE and where it is going. At first, first cause and its effect is not known, Then cause and effect are acknowledged. Then cause and effect are superceded by awareness of Primordial Source which interpenetrates every moment of existence and non-existence. That describes the sequenceless sequence of the path (adhva) of gradual awakening.
The three times are imputations of the past, the future, and the existential present where "things" are frozen in a false conception as if they are truly existing by themselves alone, separate, or independent. Perhaps better than "false" or "illusory", we should use the word, superficial. Dualism is superficial and narrow understanding. However, if we put on pause the conceptual thinking process, which frames "reality" into limited conceptual boxes, then, the essential true nature (dharmanam) of phenomena will be revealed. The citta (mindfield) under the influence of the vrtta (citta-vrtti) ordinarily rides the winds of karma and change. It tends to be colored and pulled to the past or future as if they existed within the confines of linear time, but here Patanjali is clearing the ground to expound on effective meditation which brings forth samadhi where such artificial distinctions, limitations, and separations are no longer habitually imposed. We will again see how past traumas as samskaras hold us to the past and color future experiences. Our conditioned concepts of linear time and hence succession become a severe limitation in experiencing the Reality of the timeless moment – the realization of samadhi or turiya. In Reality separate incremental events do not exist outside of the all inclusive Great Integrity -- in fact they are intimate parts of ALL OUR RELATIONS. This sutra points to that which does not change HERE and NOW -- Eternal NOW awareness.
Ever present eternal now awareness is always accessible, but through non-recognition of it (avidya or ignorance) the mental prisons of the citta-vrtti are drawn into the future being conditioned by the past. But through Eternal NOW awareness, HERE and NOW, we influence the past and the future also NOW. From HERE we can access and speak to both we can speak to both NOW. This translation thus goes beyond linear time, flat plane three dimensional framework, and words. It is from HERE that reality (dharmanam) can be truly experienced as-it-is in timeless NOW awareness.
‘The ultimate subject we need to define is the Ultimate Nature, or Dharmata, of phenomena. The Prajna-paramita Sutra says, 'Dharmata is not knowable (with the intellectual mind) and cannot be perceived in concepts.' "
Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (1820-1892)
These (te) apparently subtle fragmented and corruptive mentations break down "events" into appearing as separate independent (atmanah) manifold manifestations (vyakta) with many variegated classifications (of the gunas) [giving birth to endless classification systems and imputations by the monkey mind] no matter how subtle (suksmah) or seemingly apparent (vyakta).
vyakta: manifest; fabricated; visible
guna: qualities and characteristics
atmanah: having selfhood
Commentary: These samskaric vagaries of the mind may be described as the operations of a separate "self" (atmanah) that has become immersed in the ever changing qualities, variations, and vicissitudes (vyakta) of the gunas (guna-atmanah), but separated from the unitive consciousness (not acknowledging the underlying wholistic system. Indeed this is the superficial norm, but unnatural result, of the fragmented erroneous, and dualistic samskaric (conditioned) mindset. In short, "reality" may appear (vyakta) differently according to the viewpoint and characteristics of the mindset that is viewing it (guna-atmanah), but it-is- as-it-is to one, who has recognized the true primordial nature of their own mind. In this latter case, the small box-like conceptual mindset has given way to the original (aditya) Mind. the subtle (suksmah) qualities of form have revealed their primal origin. One is true to the Original Mind (Aditya). Without that recognition, these subtle apparitions can take over and appear insidious. They can appear to have a selfhood of their own, seemingly self-existing outside of the great integrity. The point being that ultimately it is the individual mindset, which has become fragmented, not the interconnections of phenomena, which always exists within primordial space and time. The problem of fragmentation occurs when the conditioned mindset unnaturally contrives designators of a separate self (atmanah) to what is naturally interdependent and interconnected.
In reality, when we realize our true self nature (swarupa-sunyam) we realize that are all interconnected and interdependent; i.e., that Atman and Brahman are one, as a coherent integrity. Atman is never separate from Brahman in reality. However when our minds are out of synch with that great integrity, the mind identifies with the qualitative distinctions or differences which separate and fragment, while losing sight of the whole.
This doesn't have to be an either/or proposition, where we either identify as being separate and distinct from each other and phenomena, or are one and the same, but rather this can be framed in integrity as a both/and proposition, where infinite differentiation forms a harmonious marriage with unborn undifferentiated consciousness (purusa). That occurs in samadhi where our true self nature is experienced as entirely open (swarupa-sunyam). In this all inclusive Great Integrity, infinite diversity is entertained and included, leaving nothing out -- nothing excluded.
We have seen how the vrtti are dissolved in meditation through dissolving the limiting thought patterns of samskara, vasana, karma, linear time, etc. all held together overall by “ignorance” (avidya). Now Patanjali uses the philosophical terminology of his day to tell us that when the vrttis are broken down as to individualized (atmanah) characteristic qualities as a reductionist process, alienation and Self estrangement results. Continuity and integration is disrupted in favor of corruption.
It is not necessary to understand the morass of Samkhya philosophy, which elaborates upon the process of breaking down of the evolutes of the gunas even further into further differentiated distinctions, to understand what Patanjali is saying here in the yogic integrative sense. It is sufficient to know that the three gunas (sattva, rajas, and tamas) simply are representative of the three (triadic) primary constituent forces in nature used by classical samkhya, much like the yin and yang in the dualistic Chinese system. All these manmade systems of classification and categorization are arbitrary, limited. and approximate substitutes for the "real thing".
In non-dual thought, atma and Brahman are experienced as one, in Reality by the yogin, but when the fragmented mind assigns self (atma) as being associated with a separate, discontinuous, disparate, biased, and temporary existence devoid of the universal recognition of an all pervading omnipresent unitive consciousness, then one's mid has fallen away from original integrity of father/mother, family, and community, which further leads to a state of spiritual self-alienation and corruption, where ignorance, false identification (asmita), craving (raga), aversion (dvesa), and death rule. Patanjali is slowly revealing, step by step, the reality of the all pervading singularity, where all things are experienced as interdependent and interconnected through a natural ongoing yogic process. Experience in this integral context is no longer subject to interpretation by a fragmented mindset (through the veil of the citta-vrtti), but is experienced as-it-truly-is by a yogin, who has cleaned out the obscurations and limitations of past samskaras, kleshas, vasana, and karma. Yogi, having recognized their innate core intelligence, are then ready for natural liberation in action as enlightened co-creative living.
Natural evolution as well as all of the other elements of the process of creation reflect one great and profound integrity/unity, which is not devoid of any of its parts and is bathed in primordial consciousness and contains it. In this way experiencing its parts, one experiences the whole.
parinama: Transformation: change
ekatvad: oneness: uniformity, continuity, interdependence, interconnectedness, wholeness, singularity, integrity.
vastu: object, focus, object of thought, intent, purpose, object in relationship to other objects and self, object relations.
tattvam: thatness: essence; the elements. Within the yogic sense the elements are open doorways to the one -- they are all relatives and not independent. See Pada 3 for the yogic practice of tattva shuddhi).
Commentary: The gunas themselves travel on the winds of change (parinama) and as such the manifest world of objects (vastu) exist as they are (tattvam); yet they arise from the same Great Integrity (ekatvad). The gunas are the qualitative filter or philosophical framework which samkhya philosophers use to break down and analyze the parts of the phenomenal universe; in this case into a triad i.e., tamas guna (not white), rajas guna (not black), and sattva guna (balanced). In reality this separation is a manufactured illusion. Rather the evolutionary power and primordial wisdom are inherently inseparable. Simply stated, the world of form (nirmana) is created from prakrti's primary evolutes; i.e., the gunas. This is realized in pure vision (vidya). When we think only in terms of the gunas and lose sight of its integrity with prakrti (and purusa in sattva), then the mind has become fragmented (in an obscured state where the citta-vrtti are dominant).
In that fragmented state the dualistic mind often mistakes an object (vastu) as existing separate, alone, or fragmented outside the context of the unitive or wholistic oneness (ekatvad) thus its universal essence (tattvam) is overlooked. Breaking objects (vastu) down into their constituent elements (tattva) leaves one with isolated parts, but the object is then lost sight of as a unitive whole, as well as its place in the entire stream of creation (parinama) in terms of universal reality where all created things are evolutes from primordial sourceless source. What is ascribed as the action due the gunas is really due to the action of shiva/shakti, thus instead of witnessing what might appear as disparate forces, they are witnessed as the play of intelligent universal evolutionary forces within a profound holographic mutuality realized in the samadhi-house, as thesamadhi-house.
Although the gunas are indeed naturally in harmony with purusa/prakrti (siva/shakti) in perfect balance in sattva all the time. such is not commonly recognized as such by the average fragmented mind, because it requires a balanced mind to recognize it. The world is not "normally" perceived as integrated, interdependent, and inseparable. The non-sattvic mind which is imbalanced abides in ignorance of this harmony. Thus a corrupted and fragmented world view devoid of true integrity persists, where the gunas appear as if fragmented or spilt apart from the whole (in short ignorance) being dependent upon cause and effect and thus being a result of past karma. That is the corrupt dualistic view as opposed to the integrative view which yoga attempts to affect. In reality the evolution (parinama) of the gunas is not separate from Mahat (Universal Consciousness) and purusa (at least in non=-dual systems). When this is experienced as a wholistic system through effective yogic practices (such as dhyana/meditation) this corruptive state becomes annulled (nirodha).
"Purnam adah, purnam idam, purnat purnam udachyate, purnasya purnam adaya purnam evavasisyate (Isa. Invocation): The eternal Wholeness, which is God's Existence, manifests His Wholeness which is this creation. This creation is very vast. It looks infinite. This infinite creation has come out from the infinite, timeless Eternity which is God. That is the meaning of purnam adah, purnam idam: "That is the infinite, this also is the infinite." Mathematically there cannot be two infinites and, therefore, the coming out of one infinite from another infinite is to be understood in its proper sense. When this infinite comes out from the infinite, there is no diminution in the infinitude of that infinite. It remains nevertheless the same infinite.
Purnasya purnam adaya purnam evavasisyate: Having taken the infinite from the infinite, the infinite always remains without any kind of lessening of its quantum.
If God was totally outside the world of creation and you were part of the creation, there would be no ladder or link between the world and God; there being no linkage between you and God's Existence; there would be no propriety in even attempting to attain God. But, this world is a revelation of God. He Himself appears as this world. This is the reason why through this world you can attain God. Even the littlest material in this world can act as a ladder to climb to the pedestal of God's Existence. There is no atom in the cosmos where God's eternal Soul is not present. Here, just now, you can enter into God without moving anywhere else because of the pervasion of God in all creation, even in the littlest atom. So this creation in which you are also included, being pervaded by God Almighty, cannot stand outside Him. And your concept of God - as the creator of the world - should require proper educational discipline, in case you have the wrong notion that God is far away and He exists as a creator of the world at a distance."
From Swami Krishnananda's commentary on the Isavasya Upanishad.
Nature when seen in continuity with its primordial source reflects Siva/ishvara (the all pervasive consciousness). Shiva and Shakti are inseparable when realized as an all encompassing and all pervasive integrity/singularity.
Regardless, how the non-yogic dualistic/fragmented mindset may classify, label, categorize, conceptualize, differentiate, freeze, isolate, limit or, perceive the phenomenal/temporal or relativistic world as divided and corrupt, in fact, the relative world of "so called" isolated/independent things never-the-less is on fire, interdependent, ever changing, temporary, inter-connected, and in constant vibratory flux of a profound mutuality. Causes create effects, effects create new causes, and so on. the liberated mind resting in stillness knows this all in fullness. When the true nature of one's own mind is intimately known, then the true nature of phenomena is also known. As apparently solid/frozen objects are transpersonally known as flux/flow, then the vajra-like formless nature underlying it is also perceived. Hence the yoga distinguished between phenomena and the true nature of phenomena, one revealing the other.
Just so, even the mountains and stars move subtly even now and even more grossly over time. Although in the relative sense, objects appear to the sense organs as real and substantial, in actuality in the relative sense they only appear substantially "real" and independent as if time and space could be frozen, but such a frozen time frame is illusory/fabricated. Thus it is a severe limiting mistake (an illusion) to mistake that which is a limited artificial perception, having stepped out of the integral continuum, as being real, placing it (pratyaksha) out of context with the intrinsic unity of timeless intravenously arisen absolute truth, i.e., that any object has any inherent existence by itself out of context from the absolute whole of the Great Integrity. In truth, the true nature of phenomena can only be glimpsed when one has realized the true nature of his own mind -- the two being inseparable forming an integral whole within the context of a profound mutuality.
The error of eternalism which imputes permanence to that which is temporary (solidness to that which is empty of its own independent nature) is a self limiting illusory error, but none-the-less all too common mistake of the ordinary corrupted, and fragmented dualistic thought patterns, mindsets, and conditioned belief systems which are based on the shaky foundations of the fragmented mistake of separateness which Patanjali is here addressing. Therein lies the repetitive error of ignorance until this habitual pattern is broken. Indeed there exists infinite diversity, but it exists as-it-is without distortion only within its true context -- only in the profound wholistic non-dual integrity which affirms the unity of being and consciousness -- nature and spirit. Both seemingly separate worlds, relative and absolute are integrated as an inseparable organic continuity only within the overall organic context of a Vast Integrity.
In the non-dualistic context of ALL OUR RELATIONS-- in sacred presence all created things are sacred -- bound together and Whole while being understood within a profound Continuum or Unitive Integrity; hence the non-dualistic "wholographic" context of samadhi is gradually integrated replacing the ordinary dualistic mind patterns and fractual corrupted frameworks based on static isolation, partial truths, sophistry, and similar discontinuities. This is also the same basic idea of the sunyata of the Buddhists -- the inherent egolessness or emptiness of all things an beings -- that they do not exist as separate in themselves. See sutra 34 (the last sutra of kaivalya pada) for more on sunyata in this context. Here the great diversity of phenomena is seen with the single eye as primordial wisdom -- interconnected and whole.
"It is like an impoverished woman
Whose appearance is common and vile,
But who bears an Arya son
Who will become a Cakravartin king.
Replete with Seven Jewels and all virtues,
He will possess as king the four quarters of the earth.
But she is incapable of knowing this
And conceives only thoughts of inferiority.
I see that all beings
Are like infants in distress.
Within their bodies is the Tathagatagarbha,
But they do not realize it.
So I tell bodhisattvas,
'Be careful not to consider yourselves inferior.
Your bodies are Tathagatagarbhas;
They always contain
The world's light of saving grace.'
If you exert yourselves
And do not spend a lot of time
Sitting in the meditation hall,
You will attain the path of very highest siddhi
And save limitless beings."
The Buddha, "The Tathagatagarbha Sutra"
Practice: Tattva shuddhi (also called bhuta shuddhi) is an ancient yogic practice that purifies all the elements of the physical body, the chakras of the energy body, and their corresponding mental, emotional, and spiritual correspondences. It is a most excellent practice combining pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, bandha, and mudra. Tattva shuddhi practice is very powerful and energizing. It is capable of burning up old samskaras and purifying past karma.
Sutras IV-15-27 describe the vectors which impedes progress in meditation as fragmented, limited and static states of consciousness, thus interfering with the process of continuous awakening
Due to habitually fragmented consciousness with its reductionist tendencies (citta-bhedat) the same object or phenomena (vastu-samye) will be perceived differently (tayoh-vibhaktah) depending upon the positioned bias of an isolated viewer (panthah) who has not realized their universal true nature (who has not yet stilled the colorings of the citta-vrtti).
object, focus, object of thought, intent, purpose, object in relationship to other objects and self, object relations.
samye: same as; being equal to.
bhedat: to break down, reduce; demean, atomize, to separate, to segment, the parts from the whole
vibhaktah:: divided, dissuaded from, separated, broken apart, made disparate, disconnect, disrupt.
pantah: path, road. avenue, process.
Commentary: As we have understood from the previous sutra, the whole is present in its parts. The parts do not exist independently by themselves, but are part of a great interdependent co-evolutionary relationship -- in ALL OUR RELATIONS.
Phenomenal reality is entirely as-it-is, ever changing, radiant and reflective, neither good or bad, right or wrong, white or black, etc. Those beliefs color and distort the underlying differentiated reality of what is-as-it-is in its own true nature (swarupa), Existence or Sat truly exists within the universal context of samadhi (swarupa-sunyam) whether or not it perceived clearly or not, but human beings who have fixated upon an ego identity (asmita) will never recognize its true nature (except in a conventional sense). That does not mean that there is not an underlying truth and reality (integrity) running through all of creation/existence (see Sutra 14 above). Patanjali is stating that until one gleans the all pervasive singularity in All Our Relations, then that universal view remains hidden. In short waking up, awakens our perception of nature as awake (call it supernature or shakti if one wants). Only shiva knows shakti. Know shiva and you will know shakti. Know shakti intimately and completely as the innate intelligent evolutionary flow and you will know shiva as the name-holder or designator for primordial source. In the samsaric dualistic state of mind, one person's truth is simply individualized, skewed, partial, superficial, and biased, as good or as bad as another's "view". However, when the citta-vrtta cease their operation, then the view becomes complete, boundless, unobscured, and universal. There is no independent viewpoint apart from the universal; yet multifaceted diversity shimmers in the light of evernewness. That such a spiritual/transformational shift of consciousness and beingness from alienated fragmentation to an ever-present integral knowledge is possible was the point of the previous sutra, while the present sutra supports that and brings it forward. This same theme is restated slightly differently in Sutra IV.16
The non-yogin generally speaking lays claim to an individual, fragmented, or egoic “view”, i.e., it is valid to them and appears real from the fragmented mental state that upholds the delusion of a separate self. Worse, some claim the right to their own delusion. One person’s view or path (panthah) appears to be not better or worse than another’s, only different (vibhaktah). Thus another pull of consciousness or vrtti (chitta-bhedat) is identified and remediated. All the many paths of our spiritual journeys will hopefully lead us to the realization of the Great Integrity – where the paths all merge as One. HERE one must be able to drop all fear, aversion, clinging, preconception, conditioning, samskaras, and ignorance (avidya). HERE in non-dual sacred presence the path and journey is over, completed, and fulfilled. Only Universal Consciousness – the Boundless Infinite Mind is capable of viewing Reality uncolored and complete -- as-it-is – without bias or prejudice that stems from the relative positioning of the viewer – the dualistic and confused world of I-it or asmita (ego). This occurs for a yogi when the vrtti cease (in citta-vrtti nirodha), when all fragmented spins cease in a profound stillness. Notice how this coincides with Einstein’s theory of relativity and time where the viewpoints of both the observer and the observed are taken into consideration. This intercessional boundless realm is where we reside in deeper meditation. When that all encompassing non-dual transpersonal view is realized, then there is only one (universal) view, not "yours" nor "mine", but OURS. Thus it is said that the ego chases his tail craving "self" satisfaction, but can not find it neither hither nor "there".
Thus in meditation the futility of defining a distinct object is recognized and let go (vairagya) of through viveka (in vigilant and centered pure awareness). In the beginning a dualistic thought might creep in and last for a long while, it may distract us. Through viveka we recognize that the individual consciousness has become carried away by the monkey mind into a dualistic fixation. Then we are able to let go by relaxing the fixation -- redirecting the cit-prana -- while we go back resting in the larger light of the all encompassing transpersonal non-dual universal Self. This larger light starts to be recognized increasingly through repeated practice. Meditation (dhyana) thus takes the yogi to samadhi.
With intermediate practice achieved, the dualistic thought’s start to arise, but before the process is completed it is recognized as such and not followed. The non-dual state is thus amplified through such practice, and after awhile, the distractions die away by themselves, so that new thought processes (vrttis) do not even arise.
For example the counterproductive illusion of the separateness of the one who is meditating and the room or objects in the room, or the rigid dualistic separate sense of self from that of nature, or the dysfunctional and counterproductive sense of a separate self who is meditating, the illusion of a separate object of the meditation, and the illusion of even the meditation itself -- all such limitations of separate fragmented illusions die down by themselves as non-dual wisdom spontaneously arises.
"Homage to Manjushri The understanding of ordinary people is defective.
Recognition itself is not disclosed by words. Turning from what draws you in,
Grasp the refinement of what is to be done;
Doing thus, the facticity of mind is recognized. Thought formation is not bound by tenseness;
Likewise the fundamental continuity is self-contained,
Since action, exertion, and the matrix of purposeful grasping do not exist.
Doing thus is the ongoing meditation. Because the realm of voidness is like the clouds,
All the various thought formations are like their ebb and flow,
When pacified through lack of benefit or injury.
Doing thus is self-liberation. This is the teaching of the essential point in three words.
By experiencing within, one understands."
By Mipham Rinpoche
For the advanced yogin, who has realized the true nature of mind -- Universal Boundless Mind, there exists full agreement and alignment with what-is. That guidepost is the starting point of truly ethical action where divine will and intent has fully merged joyously with individual will and intent inseparably as one. A natural alliance is formed through the evolutionary power which removes artificially imposed inhibitions and repression of our innate evolutionary power (Buddhanature) and hence the yogin now acts interactively and in a synergistic synchrony in ALL OUR RELATIONS.
Nor is it true that the phenomenal world itself depends on how we view it or upon our mental conclusion. Rather what appears as phenomenal objects (vastu) and belief systems (pramana) are mostly misperceived and illusory conceptually colored viewpoints (citta-vrtti) by a fragmented consciousness (citta) enmeshed in a habitually conditioned state of mind. Non-the-less the unbiased mind is capable of viewing accurately, while in a state of integral consciousness or wholistic vision (eka-citta-tantram). Objects (vastu) are not dependent upon the viewpoint of any one conscious fragmented mind or mental composition, or how we view them; for what would happen to that object once the mind has become withdrawn from it?
tantram: a thread, weave; intertwined together; here tantrum refers to a compounded thought construct; i.e., the weave of an individual consciousness (observer) with a imputed external object. Woven together as a whole
eka-citta-tantram: Integral consciousness
vastu: object or referent.
apramana: devoid of belief: unbelievable, astounding: preposterous
apramanakam: not evidenced; unproved, not apparent
syat: could be
kim: taken as a whole
Commentary: The above is a statement of a double negative as it starts with the word (na) which is translated as nor and contains the word, apramana, which means devoid of belief. Because it ends in a question and is thus rhetorical, the presence of these elements makes it difficult to translate it literally into English. Another translation would be “No egoic train of thought or belief about the reality of phenomena can be conclusive, proven, authoritative, determinate, or truly accurate (apramana)to coincide with the actual reality of such phenomena as-it-is. Rather it is merely a contrived belief. Better stated, the underlying non-dual reality is obscured by the illusion of fragmented consciousness and limited beliefs. Non-dual awareness abides within the realm of an interdependent interconnected weave (tantrum) of consciousness that reveals the true self-luminous all pervading essence of phenomena as the marriage of emptiness and form, which is describable in relative, but non-dual interdependent terms. The fragmented or reductionist mindset (sutra IV.15 as citta-bhedat) is not capable of seeing the whole as-it-is, because it is focused on individual parts not the fabric as a whole (eka-citta-tantram). When the wholistic context is taken into account, then the parts are known without bias or taint.
Thus taken apart as a separate individual self, the individual must construct a compensatory lack of pre-existing integrity in order to weave thought forms (eka-citta-tantram) around the object in order to determine or conclude (apramanakam) an accurate view of the meaning or "reality" of the object (vastu) or phenomena. That imputation requires considerable energy and effort to construct. It is merely an ideational image and interpretation of the object as perceived from the vantage point of a isolated and unique viewpoint (the positional location of the observer). It is not the direct knowing of the true nature of phenomena, which bestows and assigns such meaning. Hence it is artificial, subjective, and limited consciousness. That observer then, having invested work in constructing this conception and belief about the object starts to wake up realizing that the mind is a determining player as to how phenomena are conceived. Thus, one realizes that the individual/fragmented mind colors/tinges the observers view. Realizing that the mind plays a central role in determining the accuracy of one's view is a large step, but it can be a dangerous slippery slope if one wrongfully decides at this juncture of spiritual development that the object is entirely determined by the mind and ceases to exist once the mind is withdrawn. It is just as dangerous, but even more seductive to falsely conclude, that all is illusion, all is what the individual mind creates and says it is, and that life is simply a delusional game. That is an egocentric conclusion, mistaking one's individual view to be a universal view, while nixing the possibility of a universal non-dual view. Indeed, when the ego places another thought object into focus or fancy into their mindstream, other objects seem to disappear, but they do not really disappear. Merely one's mind has left its attention to the the object, so it only appears to not exist to that one observer. The "other" views are narcissistic, ego-centered, and delusional.
A positive way of restating this sutra is that when the universal singularity that interconnects all things and beings as the non-dual transpersonal universal boundless awareness is intimately experienced as the union of Cit and Sat, Shiva and shakti, of purusa and the evolutionary power, grandfather/grandmother, light and love, wisdom and compassion, absolute (undifferentiated) truth and relative (differentiated) truth, as the inseparability of the true nature of mind and the true nature of nature, crown and root, are integrated, then the foundational support residing behind all phenomena will be grounded and integrated as non-dual clarity and wisdom.
Despite disparate view points and belief systems, the reality of an object is independent upon what the mind may make it out to be; i.e., whether or not we believe a grape to an orange or another person believes the grape to be an apple, such does not change its intrinsic nature which exists as-it-is within the context of the great continuity. In other words all because people can not agree, whether or not conventional and consensus reality is prejudicial, or because some one is biased (influenced by vrtti) or not,, it does not mean that unbiased universal Reality does not exist as-it-is in thusness/suchness (tathata/dharmata). Whether or not the mind views it or not, phenomenal objects exist truly in terms of a profound co-creative interdependence. as they are unchanged in themselves in the instantaneous moment. However outside that instantaneous moment the entire universe has become transformed,
This sutra thus discourages the mistaken notion that "reality" is solely dependent upon individual consciousness or view, which was a popular theory in some philosophical circles (a branch of the cittamatra or mind only school) in Northern India and parts of China. Although not all cittamatra adherents advocated this extreme view (also found in some Madhyamika schools) their interpretation briefly stated was that there was no reality that could be ascribed to an external object from its own side; i.e., the entire reality was due to the mind associations and imputations alone. Another way of stating this was that a "thing" existed only because it depended upon one's own mind (which created the problem) and that objects took the shape of the mind. Although the mind is a player in this drama, taken to the extreme, such a view can be entirely delusional and self gratifying. All one has to do is to think the right thoughts and be happy. That is the mind over matter school which might well be somewhat functional in isolation in a cave, but not very practical in everyday modern life. Emphasizing the power of the mind and creative thought is excellent, but there is nothing more empowering to align one's consciousness and being up with what-truly-is-as-it-is -- with the inseparability of the evolutionary power and its source. Obviously Patanjali is saying no, to the mind-only school. Regarding the cittamatra school, there exist many branches some of which define Mind" as the primordial Universal all pervading Primordial Natural Mind which when experienced simultaneously reveals the true nature of underlying all phenomena (the true nature of nature) as all knowing wisdom.
Another point of this sutra is to expose the truth of interdependence, that phenomena truly exists transconceptually and non-dually. Phenomena can not be successfully or accurately reified/objectified as a separate independent thing, compounded, or constructed by the conceptual mind without error. That error (vikalpa) is inherent in the dualistic assumption (the I/it framework) of the conceptualization/ideational process. As soon as the intellect attempts to solidify and freeze an object in time and space, the entire galaxy has shifted. It is not to say that these conceptual frameworks may not be useful in specific applications, but rather they are limited. When conceptual thought processes become habitual, dominant, and overbearing, they limit and reduce the quality of human experience That is the ever- new truth of the evolutionary power -- the power and process of creation. Indeed pure consciousness and pure subjective beingness merge as true bliss in Sat Cit Ananda. They are inseparable, but not the same.
Even the opposite proposition, that states that the mind takes the shape of the object is equally vacuous (although in some human beings such simplemindedness may actually commonly occur). However in a yogic sense, the citta-vrtti are to be identified and eliminated so the seer rests in their essential natural true state capable of viewing things as they are. That profound unity/integrity as absolute completion and integrity is yoga.
Another similar way to translate this sutra is to state, that as consciousness does not truly depend upon separate objects, the reality of a separate object does not depend upon consciousness itself. "Things" exist as they are, regardless of our beliefs or concepts that surround them or which we impute upon them as a limited state of consciousness. This latter "interpretation" however may be more an indulgence toward the Hindu oriented academic quarrel with the mind-only Buddhist sect of the early first millennium about whether or not "reality" depends on the mind or not. Such counterproductive quarrelling occurred up until the 13th century AD when the “evil” Buddhists were exterminated by the invading Moguls and does not concern us here. In truth once the consciousness is freed from conceptual imputations (in nirvikalpa) and pramana (beliefs governed by inference, peers, and external authorities), or other citta-vrtta, then consciousness becomes unobstructed, limitless, boundless, and true clarity regarding the true nature of nature is readily and naturally accessible. Since siva and shakti are inseparable one can ask does siva reveal shakti, does shakti reveal siva, or are they mutually self arising? Nirvana is in samsara, and samsara is in nirvana. Again avoiding double negatives, a positive non-dualistic translation reads: "Is not the dualistic appearances and beliefs in the fragmented/separate phenomena (vastu tad-apramanakam) remediated through the integrated weave of universal consciousness (eka-citta)?"
In short, Patanjali is amplifying the reality of One Big Family (Vasudev Kutumbhkam,) in the transpersonal interconnected spiritual realm of ALL OUR RELATIONS – that we should not become dissuaded into a fragmented/discontinuous world of apparent separateness –we should not allow ourselves to become corrupted by the forces of avidya, neither have our consciousness become colored by fragmented appearances, nor be very concerned about having the world conform to our beliefs or mere ideations.
Deluded, cynical, fragmented, disparate, and materialistic human beings will want others to believe in their own self serving delusion and belief. Such deluded beings will deny that there truly exists a reality or truth outside of one's own subjective deluded bias. Such is the slippery slope of a corrupt and deluded religion which teaches illusion and falsehood.
Beyond that is a realm where our subjective experience is inspired and interconnected with clarity, light. and consciousness. That unity state which encompasses both samsara and nirvana as the unity of the evolutionary power with primordial wisdom, the inseparability of both nature and spirit cuts through the citta-vrtta completely. This interactive way of living in Integrity awaits the dedicated yogi, after he she has surrendered all false associations, attachments, and distractions. Such happens gradually through practice but eventually always ends inside the instantaneous moment -- in Sat-Cit-Ananda!
"In terms of your own mind, as is the case with everyone, Samsara and Nirvana are inseparable. Nonetheless, because you persist in accepting and enduring attachments and aversions, you will continue to wander in Samsara. Therefore, your active dharmas and your inactive ones both should be abandoned. However, since self-liberation through seeing nakedly by means of intrinsic awareness is here revealed to you, you should understand that all dharmas can be perfected and completed in the great total Self-Liberation. And therefore, whatever (practice you do) can be brought to perfection within the Great Perfection.Excerpted from Self-Liberation through Seeing with Naked Awareness by John Myrdhin Reynolds, 1989 and 2000
SAMAYA gya gya gya!"
[In the ordinary dualistic dysfunction] linear consciousness (cittasaya) is tinged (uparaga) by preference, prejudice, bias, expectation, or otherwise tends toward a predisposed attraction (apeksitvat) to an apparently separate sense object or phenomena, which in this mental state can not be known correctly as it is (jnata). It is rather known for what it is not (ajnata).
uparaga: to tinge, color, bias, slant, or corrupt according to individual preferences and predilection.
apeksitvat: expectation, anticipation, predilection.
cittasaya: Pertaining to the nature of consciousness. Of the mind or psyche. The vector, direction, or intention of the mindfield: Broadly speaking, a process of mentation relating to the process of consciousness. In its pure sense relating to the causal flow of mind. The condition of the mindfield, the mindstream, or the direction of the active mindfield. In dharana the act of directing the mind/attention toward an object of attention is the direction that the cittasya undertakes by itself, where attention drives the attention.
When any object is truly known onepointedly as-it-is, reflecting the causal flow of mind (parinispannasvabhava), it is simultaneously experienced as being empty of a separate/independent self. When mind is seen as it truly is, undisturbed by dualistic tendencies, the yogi experiences directly the undistorted truth, the parinispannasvabhava, the causal flow of mind devoid of subject/object duality.
vastu: object: referent; the ideational focus of attention; a representational image; object relations
jnatam: the knower in the state of comprehending an apparent object of knowing; that which is known by a so called knower.
ajnatam: not known by the observer. the observer in the state of ignoring an object (ignorance); that which is unknown by a so called independent knower. Unrecognized by the observer.
Commentary: Our view of reality is often unclear, tinged, obstructed, and limited. Worse we become habituated to mass confusion and delusions, illusions, popular belief systems, external authoritative systems, institutionalized ignorance, prejudice, bias, and fear, as well as conventional per reality where there is an agreed upon (conventional) reality mutually acknowledged between two or more people. Such should be known as mere substitutes, as inadequate substitutes and unreliable replacements for the truth. One should never give up the quest for the truth.
This sutra reiterates the truth of the previous sutra as a natural progression in the process of disclosing the ultimate truth by acknowledging that our view of phenomena is not the always clear and accurate depending on the predilected tinge and filters that are imputed by the bias of the individual mindset. Even though our view may be so tinted, inaccurate, and limited, that tinge does not stain the object in reality, but only our view of the object. In truth all phenomena are stainless. Our view is correct when phenomena are seen with clear stainless eyes as pure from the beginning. A pure object, as-it-is, is not known through dualistic cognition (through processes governed by subject/object duality).
Om svabhava shuddha sarva dharma svabhava shuddho hum
In short due to the vagaries of the mind (citta-vrtti), avidya (ignorance or confusion) is the result. The true independent nature of objects can not be fully known because they are not separate and independent as one has become accustomed to believe. Such mental grasping is a poor substitute for jnana (true knowledge). We see this phenomena frequently in dualistic confusion, where different people suffer from misconceptions and prejudice, are fooled by unrealistic expectations (apeksitvat), suffer from disappointment, become happy or sad by the various manifestations of uparaga. Likewise it is wise to defeat uparaga before meditation and thus not to fall victim or be distracted in determining the correct appearance of disparate phenomena. Such is also a futile distraction as the underlying dualistic assumption itself is an illusion, being based on a false identification or asmita-avidya. By knowing the true nature of the mind, the view of objects no longer become tinged by the mind, but rather one sees in pure vision (vidya).
Samkhya dualists deny the unitive integrative process which is yoga, and they will never agree that an all pervading holographic reality pervades the universe transcending time and place -- that primordial Source consciousness (purusa) is found in all things, not in separation or isolation, but through recognizing the Great Integrity in ALL OUR RELATIONS HERE and NOW.
Swami Venkatesananda sums this sutra up succinctly:
"However, a particular object or substance is comprehended or ignored in accordance with whether the mind is or is not colored by that object, and is therefore attracted or repelled by that substance. Hence the quality or the description of the substance is dependent on the mind: whereas its existence is independent of it."
The vacillations and bias of the mind-field (citta-vrttayas) are established and frozen by the grasper (jnatasth) by misidentifying the changeless nature (aparinamitvat) of purusa, which itself is unmoving and ultimately determinate (prabhoh) .
A more positive way of saying this is:
The vacillations and bias of the mind-field (citta-vrttayas) are revealed to the observer (jnatasth) in their true form by realizing the changeless nature (aparinamitvat) of purusa (the true nature of mind), which underlies all and everything, which itself is unmoving and the ultimate determinate (prabhoh) .
jnatah: known as known by the knower; the knower in the state of comprehending an object of knowing; that which is known by a so called independent knower.
citta-vrttayas: recurring patterns waves, biasing, colorings, and/or fluctuations of the mindfield.
praboh: the controller, ruler, source, governor, and cause of the of the mind (purusa).
aparinamitvat: unchanging; non-transformative; still
purusa: Here purusa is defined as the changeless all pervading universal source of consciousness -- the root/seed beginningless and primordial principle of pure seed awareness, which is innate, all pervasive omnipresent, and hence reflected in all of nature, when its true nature is recognized. Purusa is often defined as the unmoving universal viewer, not separate from all other beings/things, hence an all permeating conscious presence.
Commentary: When the true ultimate nature of the mind is known as the conscious principle (purusa), then that underlying primordial wisdom itself wisely and unerringly determines the true nature of nature. Purusa as pure primordial consciousness (the primordial non-dual Self) is embedded in all. Although all pervasive, omnipresent, implicate, and intimate within all transitory phenomena, itself, it is universal and unchanging. That purusa itself can not be known by an independent observer, because no observer can exist outside that which is all pervading. Thus it can not be grasped or apprehended by a separate knower. It is known (and must be known) as the indwelling, innate, implicate, all pervading intelligence and light by those who have recognized their true nature (as the param-purusa, as swarupa-sunyam in non-dual transconceptual samadhi).
Viewing from this non-dual integral stillness of purusa consciousness, the citta-vrtti dissolve. The yogi's mindfield becomes quieted, stilled, and rested. When we know how the our mind works as a manifestation of the Universal omnipresent Infinite Mind (Mahat)– of pure undifferentiated and eternal consciousness (purusa), then all the modifications disclose themselves as what they are. Thus it is futile to try to figure out all the manifold individual modifications of the citta-vrtti) ordinary consciousness) from the basis of duality, but rather instead focus on the Supreme Identity (prabhoh) -- the Great Integrity – the true innate spiritual authority which exists within the context of ALL OUR RELATIONS. Purusa thus provides the sacred context and thus we should recognize when we are ignoring it – when it is absent and then remediate the malaise and/or cultivate its presence through yoga practice (sadhana). Purusha is the Samkhya way of attempting to name the Great Integrity.
Purusa as Pure Universal Consciousness merged with pure beingness (in Sat-Chit-Ananda) does not move or change. It exists as the Axis Mundi accessed via the uma, the sunya, the middle channel abiding at the indwelling core/heart intelligence of the universe (the Hridayam). From there the entire whole of creation is in flux. Where is that? No separate place. Hence the non-dual holographic unity of Siva/shakti is disclosed. From HERE the river flows.
"By having the single yoga,
All mandalas are accomplished.
Therefore this itself
Develops as well as perfects
The realm of Samantabhadra.
Moreover as above,
In regard to elaboration,
There are complex and very complex,
and also supremely complex.
Inconceivable to thought,
the limitless mandalas
Become spontaneous presence."
THE GREAT PERFECTION: THE NATURE OF MIND, THE EASER OF WEARINESS, by Longchenpa
That [limited] mode of consciousness [the citta-vrttayas] is not self luminous; it can not see itself.
Drisyatvat: The nature of quality of phenomena (that which is seen or thought to have been perceived and cognized)
Svabhasya: Self illuminating
Tat: that (here referring to the citta-vrtta of Sutra Iv.18)
Commentary: The ordinary dualistic consciousness agitated and fooled by citta-vrtta is not effulgent -- it is barely alive. It is severely disabled and repressed. It has become demeaned and through transgenerational institutionalized conditioning and thus it barely sees. Any ability that it has to see and breathe is due to the eternal Self/source of which one would not exist at all. So that small self (asmita) caught up in the citta-vrtta identifies falsely (samyoga) -- not capable to true seeing by itself, but rather it is relegated to imprisonment in avidya. In short the citta-vrtti are what obstruct the pure cit (clear light awareness), hence the citta-vrtti cease (nirodha) when yoga is effected.
"A human being is part of the whole called by us universe, a part limited in time and space. We experience ourselves, our thoughts and feelings as something separate from the rest. A kind of optical delusion of consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from the prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. The true value of a human being is determined by the measure and the sense in which they have obtained liberation from the self. We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive." (Albert Einstein, 1954)
The self illuminating light (svabhasam) stems from pure undifferentiated consciousness itself (purusa)-- the absolute ultimate union of the seer, seen, and process of consciousness which bestows the self luminous (svabhasam) light of consciousness and animates our vision. Thus (tat) the [citta-vrtti] is not (na) self luminous (svabhasam) because of the nature of what is seen (drsyatvat). Consciousness emits a clear luminosity by which all os disclosed, but to look back at itself one is blinded. Clarity, wisdom, and vividness however are illumined by that light. An object is not knowable by itself, but rather is known only through its integrity as-it-is in relationship to everything else -- in ALL OUR RELATIONS. One should thus not become fooled by appearances where the consciousness "appears" as the object of consciousness or as an apparent separate "I".
Svabhasam is self luminosity or effulgence which is does not exist in separateness, but rather is non-dual and holographic. It arises simultaneously as self recognition within the context of the greater whole. This is our true nature (swarupa) which is intrinsic and self existing. Through functional meditation we increasingly learn to recognize, recall, and abide in this innate transpersonal non-dual Self continuously (without disturbance). Honoring the light, we seek it out where meditation, worship, passion, and practice merge as one motion in ALL OUR RELATIONS.
Just so, the true nature of phenomena is seen as effulgent only when the true nature of mind-awareness is known. Just as buddhi, the intellect is intelligent, its light is lit by the Purusha or pure undifferentiated consciousness – pure citta (“citi-sakter iti”) as such individual consciousness stands only as a reflection (poor as it is in its normal state) of Universal Undifferentiated Consciousness (Purusha). Its reflection takes the form of Shakti (the evolutionary power) which when seen is luminous (being illumined innately by Shiva). Hence Shakti is the reflection of Shiva, disclosing the Great Continuity to the wise. In the tantric sense then, one may attempt to bridge the two systems of Samkhya and Tantra, by stating that liberation is not isolation from Prakrti or form, but rather is found in the inseparable nature of undifferentiated and differentiated consciousness or the union in Sat and Cit – the two being united as one in Shiva/Shakti or Sat-Cit-Ananda. (See also III.35 and III.49 for the unity of absolute beingness and absolute consciousness). When the wisdom eye opens fully, a singular divine omnipresence is revealed in the many.
"Non-dual Samsara/nirvana, is one within the mind:
A variety of rivers are one within the ocean.
All has the equal taste of single co-emergence.
The change of the four elements is one in the state of space, One in freedom from mental negation or assertion,
One because whatever arises is liberated,
One in the purity of non-duality.
The play of waves is one with the water that is their substance.
Whoever realizes this can be said to be sagacious.Here all dharmas are not grasped as different.
These reflections have the nature of non-duality.
This play has no good and evil, accepting or rejecting.
Let us rest where the mind does not fixate duality.
Fixed objects do not arise when there are no reference points.
Insight without fixation is the completeness of being,
The nature of the great perfection, the natural state."
from THE NATURE OF MIND, THE EASER OF WEARINESS, (called the Great Chariot) by Longchenpa
And (ca) ordinary dualistic consciousness distorted by vrtti can not perceive simultaneously subject and object. Both (ubhaya), which is seen and the seer who sees is only rightly identified (anavadharanam) within an all encompassing holographic continuity (ek-samaye).
eka-samaye: continuity, wholeness, wholesome. Unified connection.
anavadharanam: unknowable as an object (not capable of being cognized) by the ordinary mind (citta). Asamprajnata.
ubhaya: Both, two.
Commentary: When one pointed continuous uninterrupted consciousness is disturbed, then the ordinary mind thus perceives an apparent disparity and disunity between the objective and subjective states, because mindfulness has become isolated from its all inclusive/holographic station. Then objective reality and subjective experience are not aligned, synchronized, nor known as connected. Phenomena are only correctly perceived within their proper context. Taken out of context, perception displays a s distorted picture. This is the antithesis of yoga (it is non-joining, non-union, but rather fragmentation, corruption, or disharmony), which is the milieu of citta-vrtti -- the ordinary malaise of the dualistic mind. Within even the ordinary mind is the spark of Universal Mind and within that is maha-purusa, the teacher of all teachers, isvara. Just as within Sakti, Shiva is known; so too within prakrti, purusa resides. The undivided Self is everywhere undiminished, whereas it is only the habituated limited mindset afflicted by past karmic residues (samskaras), which does not recognize it as such.
Although in ordinary circumstances, it is often of value to discern one seemingly discrete event from another, thus, avoiding confusion in the relative sense; it is also a mistake of corrupted thinking to reduce things into discrete or isolated parts, while losing the sight of the overall context or continuity of the whole (eka-samye). Rather it is far better to maintain an identification with a wholistic timeless connection free from dualistic fragmentation. As a vehicle for the higher yogic processes such as dhyana and samadhi, reductive reasoning is dysfunctional as it breaks up our one pointed concentration and connection (dharana) with the Great All Encompassing Integrity, while dissipating our consciousness into disparate fragmented departments. Yoga addresses the profound non-linear “Reality” of inter/intra-dimensional Unity where subject and object appear BOTH differentiated AND unified at the same time -- in a realm of profound mutuality and continuity. This timeless all encompassing realization is the result of meditation, not analytical discernment, reductionist thought, nor the intellect (buddhi). See Pada II for the obscurations of monism, reification, asmita, and samyoga.
"We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them." ~ Albert Einstein
Thus the stage is set to investigate the self luminous heart.
From Reflections of the Self, page 91, by Baba Muktananda Maharaj
"You are the seer, the seen,
and the process of seeing;
the creator, the creation,
and the act of creating;
the knower, the knowledge,
and the process of knowing;
the meditator, the object of meditation,
and the act of meditating."
Because of associations with past karmic residues (smriti-sankaras) and limitations of mere intellectually derived knowledge, the innermost recesses of mental perception (cittayara-drsye) remain hidden in what appears as an endless (atiprasangah) confused (samkara) regression
Cittantara: Inner mind stuff
Atiprasangah: endless, a negative feedback loop.
Smrti: from the past. memory
Samkaras: confused thought. Discursive/adventitious psycho-babble, circular thought, mental diarrhea, and/or psychological regression (when combined with atiprasangah), and/or circumlocution.
drsye: the observed. The perceived, The object of perception. Phenomenon. Events.
buddhi: The intellect. Intellectual power/function. In samkhya, it is considered a dim reflection of mahat (cosmic transpersonal Universal Intelligence), which in turn is an evolute of prakrti (evolution).
buddher: intellectual data/knowledge
Commentary: Phenomena is clearly perceived within the continuous undisrupted context which is not limited by nor contained within our personal memories. On the other hand if we continually place our experiences and perceptions within the past context, then we will continually limit ourselves and cease to integrate new experiences, thus continually regressing. If however, one focuses one’s attention to the process of which includes the inner consciousness itself, thus recognizing its source, then liberation can be attained because we take into context the total experience. But if one points it to the externalized outgoing individuation process of consciousness as exclusively and isolated manifested events, the intellect (buddhi) will misplace the perception of events within the context of a fragmented and confused world view, with the result of directing that dualistic and limited awareness toward the previous process so that a continual regression occurs. Then a fixation of externalization, a reinforcement of an objective dissociation occurs (samkara). The data rather has to be freshly placed in the present, within a context of an ongoing continuity that is all inclusive.
The valley can not be seen from the bottom of the well. At best one becomes aware of being aware. But then only a convoluted self centered regression (atiprasangah) sets in (frozen in ordinary limited "self" consciousness) which reinforces a limited dualistic reference structure which in turn maintains psychic imprints (samskara) contained within the memory (smrti) [which is to be avoided].
Here Patanjali describes an all too common trap that occurs both in everyday life and also commonly in meditation , i.e., ordinary self centered consciousness, being “self conscious”, of being aware that you are aware of being aware of oneself and so on as an endless reduction/regression. A limited mindset can not contain vast mind-- vast wisdom. Rather when it recognizes it, one must surrender to it. It is self defeating and dysfunctional to attempt to follow thoughts analytically to their beginningless origin. Again we are to be reminded that buddhi, intellect, is a function of manas and the separate self (belonging to the small self). It's filter must be removed, for us to see the underlying transconceptional Intelligence as Universal and Omnipresent Immeasurable Sacred Presence -- Buddha (vs buddhi) is of a trans-personal, non-dual and universal nature. Buddha is found within all things. From vast all pervasive space, all thoughts are known.
Being self-conscious of a separate self as the focus i.e., as being afflicted by asmita (ego), we not only become self engrossed, but we wind up in a regression of being self-aware of self being aware of self, ad infinitum. This is the very narrow, limited, and convoluted contracted state of self consciousness which is to be avoided. Although in this milieu one may become aware of one’s physical actions or the breath, we are not aware of the true nature of our thought processes, the overall surroundings, nature and the universe, and our higher Self or the all encompassing Buddhanature within corrosives as our mind-essence and within all. The cittantara is the wisdom-essence or emptiness (swarupa-sunyam) of all phenomena. It is the true self, the purusa, or buddhanature within all. It is alive self luminous and radiant space as undiminished clarity. It is the essence of the unity of material and spiritual wealth.
This snag in meditation or mindfulness must be surpassed and hence, it is to be contrasted with the expansive translocal primordial awareness that yoga addresses as consciousness (Cit), transpersonal awareness, or natural unfabricated awareness (true non-dual nature of mind), which is realized as samadhi (in swarupa-sunyam). For example, in meditation, the beginner may often find themselves afflicted by a fixation of consciousness, which observes one as being aware that one is sitting, the wall, the noise, being aware of being aware, etc. Thinking and being aware that we are thinking, or even worse being aware that one is aware that one is thinking, meditating, or similarly obsessing on our individual mentation process is a very limited boundary of consciousness -- a diversion which is to be penetrated. In that state, true meditation has not yet begun, and samadhi is hindered. This malaise is made contra-distinct by the next sutra.
We will see later that the correct application of viveka will avoid this possible difficulty. Viveka is neither lax awareness nor is it hypervigilence. Rather viveka points toward a balanced (sattvic) awareness of the Source of awareness, consciousness of the Intelligent Source of all Intelligence, or Universal Purusha Consciousness and as such will not be confused with nor reinforce the limitations of buddhi (individual intellect), manas (the ordinary mind), asmita-avidya, nor dualistic/fragmented consciousness.
In darkness are they who worship only the world. In greater darkness are they who worship the Infinite alone. Those who accept both (seen in relationship), save themselves from death by the knowledge of the former and attain immortality by the knowledge of the latter…And one who sees all beings in his own Self and his own Self in all beings, no more loathes and hates." Isha Upanishad 9-11
Swami Venkatesananda translates Sutra 21:
"If it is assumed that there are two minds the observer and the observed - this would result in logical absurdity (since both are based on the same intelligence, who designates the distinction?) and also confusion of memory or universal schizophrenia, which is not found to be the case."
Practice: This sutra is to be applied in order to achieve deep quietude in meditation. When a thought arises, we let it go instantaneously, or as soon as it is noticed. The mind is allowed to empty by detaching interest upon the thought. Following the thought or analyzing it will not bear lasting fruit, just as psychoanalysis differs from psychotherapy in results.
When we reside in the pure effulgent light of that unchanging and uncorrupted universal consciousness (citer apratisankramayayas) then the true form of the arising and manifestation (tad-akara-apattau) of the intellect (svabuddhi) is known and experienced (samvedanam).
citer: pure consciousness/awareness
apratisankramayas: undivided; unfragment. unbroken; incorrupt able, pure, unchanging, immovable.
akara: form; shape
apattau: arising; manifestation; a condition
svabuddhi: true self-nature of the intellect; essence of the intellectual function.
samvedanam: experienced, known truly, an open and receptive state; An affect, feeling, or perception.
Commentary: The intellect does not function independently from its Source (purusa/shiva). Such is merely an arrogant egoic delusion. Rather, it is from the universal transpersonal non-dual and undivided singular all-pervading and primordial consciousness (pure cit devoid of vrtti) – from the state of swarupa-sunyam (true self), the field of consciousness awaits us -- resting in eternal NOW awareness. As our inner eye/wisdom opens, all aberrations of consciousness cease on their own [without ancillary compensatory efforts]. Here the origin and true nature of of the intellect is known so that the intellect is transcended -- needless elaborations no longer hold their grip, for all is illuminated by the light of pure unobscured consciousness.
From the top of the mountain, the entire valley can be seen, while the bottom of the lake can only be explored by those who can dive deeply. Likewise the individual intelligence and intellect (buddhi) is only a dim reflection of this universal supreme unbiased intelligence (svabuddhi-samvedanam), thus our true self self nature (swarupa) can only be known thoroughly (realized) when one has stilled the wanderings of the citta (citta-vrtti-nirodha) and can abide in the universal unchanging light of consciousness (citer apratisankramayas). For perspective, Patanjali reminds us of the goal of yoga as stated in Pada One, Sutra Three.
Again the process is to stop identifying with the citta-vrtti or objects of the mind. Thus the first step is sort of a withdrawal, but it is crucial not to confuse that renunciation of duality as an end. then when the nature of our own mind is known, we can see this same primordial wisdom within all beings and nature as the true nature of nature. Such a vision does not mistake this diversity of nature as being the same as the universal omnipresent mind, rather shakti is everywhere impregnated with shiva inherently. Shakti reveals and reflects Shiva when Shiva is known inside. Then the dance begins in earnest.
The normal dualistic fragmented sorry (dukha) state is due to false and limited identifications (akarapattau) that we impose upon what-is (reality) as coming from an egoic owned intellect (buddhi) where one imputes that it possesses a separate intelligence from the universal Self. But in fact the intellect and individual motive power are charged by the Universal Source from which they can not stand apart except in illusion. So when we ordinarily see, we identify the process of seeing as being from our eyes and intellect toward a separate object, then we are lost in dualism and false identification, but spiritual vision involves the awareness of that greater power of seeing -- our higher potential so that when we gaze at a seemingly separate object we know in a deeper non-dual sense that is a Self rememberance -- that it is Self knowing Self -- love loving love in the Integrity and Great Binding together of ALL OUR RELATIONS. Abiding in an unbroken continuous awareness of this reality (citer-apratiasamkramayas) is our natural inheritance.
Swami Venkatesananda says:
"The undivided intelligence or homogeneous consciousness in which there is no movement of thought is aware of its own enlightened or awakened nature on account of its awareness of the apparent movement of thought. There is paradoxical movement in non-movement which is the total intelligence."
When we abide in this light where the seer (drashtr), the seen (drisya) and the process of seeing are known to be part of the same universal interconnected overall integral process of a natural and intact all encompassing order and purpose of life (sarva-artham), then this consciousness [which is the expression of the true omniscient universal self or purusa] is no longer colored, tainted, biased, or impure (uparaktam). Reality is not blemished, distorted, skewed, nor obscured, but experienced clearly in pure vision [vidya] as-it-is.
sarva-artham: all encompassing mutual purpose of life
drastr: the seer
drista: the seen
uparaktam: colored, filtered, skewed, tainted, or biased
Commentary: In ordinary dualistic consciousness, the object of consciousness colors the individual consciousness. Even the process of seeing as well as the seer and the seen are seen as separate phenomena, but the truth is that they are all products and players of the universal Self (purusha). Through practice one learns how to see by opening up the inner eye -- opening up the HeartMind. then the truth and innate order (dharma) of the universe is intimately revealed (sarva-art ham) through the light of this universal consciousness. No manmade structure or order can replace or compensate for such a loss/lack. In that corrupted state neurotic consumerism/desire arises as does greed, fear, and the citta-vrtti.
Normally, the preexisting colorings and bias of the individual consciousness, then colors the way we see the object. Thus Reality as-it-is is not known )it is obscured) and it is said that truth is not known, for it is fractured and tainted. This ordinary dualistic way of seeing is dualistic and corrupt. It is a very limited aspect of relativity. Only through a universal perspective can we see Reality as-it-is, unbiased, uncolored, and untainted by the disparate mind.
Liberation (kaivalya) in both Samkhya and Yoga is neither the acquisition of a new or cultivated state, nor merely the destruction of an old one, because either are merely framed or colored by the mind as something other than "Reality". Rather liberation (kaivalya) arises by itself (self arises) spontaneously as-it-is (as swarupa) as the disappearance of the conditioning factors i. e. the removal of the self imposed limitations of time/space (the limited postulation of three dimensional succession and form as a filter to explain our subjective experience). Kaivalya then occurs to disclose the sky in its own true form after the clouds (colorings) are lifted. It discloses Purusha (as pure undifferentiated universal consciousness - pure receptivity and awareness) which is no longer colored or obscured by dualism or fragmented existence. this again is where pure and absolute beingness (sattva) merges with pure and absolute consciousness as shiva/shakti), which is another way of saying that the Prakritic mirror no longer obscures nor substitutes for Purusha because All and Everything -- eternal and temporal - the absolute and the relative -- Consciousness and Experience -- Spirit and Nature -- objective/subjective, or Shiva/Shakti -- ALL are put into their natural synchronicity once again. HERE one must be able to drop all fear, aversion, clinging, preconception, conditioning, samskaras, and ignorance (avidya). HERE the "self" ceases the false and neurotic identifications with objective realities outside this central unitive context of the Great Integrity -- of ALL OUR RELATIONS.
When the accomplished yogi aligns his body, mind, and energy with the universal all encompassing unitive purpose of creativity -- primordial will and intelligent evolutionary power) then clarity of mind is established.
From Light On The Path, page 98, by Baba Muktananda
"You will see very little if you merely close your eyes and begin to search. You will only complain that it is all dark. But the truth is that it is all light. It is only your eyes which are blind. In fact, all those who try to see without the eye of knowledge are blind. Behold the inner witness who is the spectator, watching all the activities of your waking state while remaining apart from it; who dwells in the midst of action knowing it fully and yet remaining uncontaminated by good or bad deeds; who is that supremely pure, perfect and ever-unattached being.
Try to know Him who does not sleep during the state of sleep, remaining fully aware of it and witnessing all the goings-on of the dream world. On waking up, one may say, "I slept very well. I also had a dream of a beautiful temple." Are these words uttered by the one who slept? He says that he slept and saw a temple during sleep! What an enigma! O brethren, behold the spectator who remains awake while you sleep, poised far from sleep. Who is He? He is the pure witness, the attributeless One. He is the Supreme Being. He is within you, but you look for Him outside."
Even though (api) [the consciousness of the untrained yogi] may be pulled at every junction by the aforementioned diverse vagaries (citram) of reactive, conditioned, and compulsive habits (asamkhyeya-vasanabhis citram), which continually assault and fragment their mindfield, at the same time (samhatya) [the consciousness of the trained yogi] is not so negatively affected, having activated one's own intrinsic potential to act in concert with his/her highest power, purpose and intent (para-artham), i.e., where the transpersonaled yogi acts (karitvat) from their core energy -- self empowered and fulfilled, while compensatory and neurotic habits (vasanabhih) have fallen away.
asamkhyeya: numerous; broken down into its parts.
vasanaabhish: habit pattern
citram: diverse; manifold
para-artham: higher purpose or highest intention; true natural unperverted motivation.
samhatya: joined together. simultaneously, interconnected
karitvat: An act, action, or activity.
Commentary: Through negative conditioning and programming the mind field has become corrupted and seduced into seemingly fragmented and disjointed parts, but here at this juncture, the divergent results of this negative conditioning in the form of vasana, samskara, old karmic patterns, and klesha (asamkhyeya-vasanabhis-citram) have become over powered by being reorganized and aligned with the true meaning, order, purpose, and highest intent (para-artham) of the evolutionary power (shakti); hence new pathways of light from the Primordial Source are open, emanating, flowing forth and being acted upon (samhatya karitvat) which is the completion of the great harmony, unity, and integration activities like inspired musicians in an overall grand symphony.
Relinquish appearances, for they are illusion.
Relinquish the turmoil of the world, for it is perishable.
Find rapture in the awareness of the vibrating consciousness,
the consciousness which pervades everything.
From Mukteshwari II, page 133, by Baba Muktananda
Truth, beauty, justice, power, fulfillment, and rapture are not found in dualistic pursuits extrinsically. The cynical and predatory mindsets have some good news waiting for them should they give up their pre conclusions. The citta-vrtta is the apparent turmoil of the world. Folks who are in spiritual turmoil create that turmoil in thought, speech, and deed. The wise person radiates peace, love, wisdom, and justice. It is the yogi's true nature to do so. The rule of para-artham (rule of the highest intention) naturally rules when it is identified with the sarva artham (the all-purpose which is a grand alignment with the evolutionary creative power).
Swami Venkatesananda again:
"Though the mind is motivated in its actions by numerous and diverse tendencies, in reality, it exists and functions for another because it is able to function in conjunction with the undivided indwelling intelligence. The mind does not exist apart from that intelligence and the diverse tendencies."
Primal uncaused cause joined together with its own evolutionary power which is united as a non-linear transconceptual process of pure consciousness and pure being united, pulsates back and forth, up and down, in and out, in gyred multi-dimensional movements totally natural and unalloyed. When that vibratory pulsation reaches a certain degree of heat, the frequency of healing love encompasses our space. HERE in that moment all there is, is love. Love is all there is.. totally unstoppable, always eternal and temporary, both/and. Even the most hardened samskaras will melt when subjected to this all healing light.
One is no longer fooled – no longer swept away by the artificial distinction (visesa) introduced by being absorbed in a mind-field governed by a disparate perceived bias that is maintained in the dualistic conceptualized context imputation separating of seer and seen from its overall unified context. Then one can attain transconceptual and transpersonal self realization (atma-bhava), which requires no further psychic cultivation (bhavana).
visesa: distinction, delineation, specificity, differentiation. A measure, distinct from, distinguished, quality.
darsina: the seer; one who has sight or sees.
atma: self: individual soul. In truth, the abode of spirit.
bhava: beingness ; experience; a transcognitive mood or intent, gaze, such as love.
bhavana: cultivation of a state of being; becoming
vinivrtti: to undo; turn around: turn back; reverse
Instead of identifying with the objects seen or known as the seer/observer within a mentally constructed limited and dualistic subject/object framework, the yogi learns to perceive the process of perceiving. Eventually the yogi becomes aware of the awareness process (of one's own mind). as that awareness is focused upon as the intelligence behind the mind, the true nature of the mind is revealed. Through this revelation, the door of the Mind is opened and hence the yogi is able to perceive the inconceivable. The true non-dual nature of nature is revealed to one who has realized the true nature of their own mind as universal sublime and imperishable primordial wisdom. Just so then, true nature serves as a gate, a door, a reflection, inseparable with that wisdom.
This is pure being and natural (sat) merged with pure consciousness (cit), spirit and nature, sva and shakti, ayn soph and shekinah, left and right -- united -- co-emergent.
When the seer (atma) knows that he/she is seeing from the power of the true Universal consciousness (call it Purusha, Brahman, Buddha, or Siva/Shakti) a profound innate order and meaning is present. That is not the same result as an imputation stemming from an individual, separate, and contrived biased ideational power. In the former the veil of duality becomes lifted, the vrttis are undone (vinivritti), and the true vision (darsina) of our true nature (in swarupa) is realized. All seemingly individual manifestations of consciousness and intelligence stem from the Great Integrity (via Mahat and then from purusa/prakrti) of which we are its eyes and ears, arms and legs, and so forth -- of which we are intimately connected -- of which buddhi (the intellect) is a dim reflection). This occurs naturally when one's highest intention and motivation rules (para-artham). Natural confidence and trust thus self appears naturally as the result of wisdom of clear vision (avidya) -- one who lives in the integrative dimension where there is no separation between atman and Brahman. The atman (self) that is defined as self existent separate from Brahman is a false/illusory self -- a fabricated ideation. The yogi through Self knowledge reverses the process of egoic ideation, and thus eventually cleans the mental obscurations which create the vrtti. Those are surrendered upon the altar of truth -- universal dharma.
Swami Venkatesananda says; "One who sees this completely and clearly is freed from the false and imaginary notion of self."
Inclined (nimnam) towards this method of non-dual differentiated awareness based on the profound mutuality of wholographic relationships (viveka), then consciousness (cittam) gravitates and is propelled toward (pragbharam) kaivalya (total and complete re-integration and liberation).
Kaivalya: Unconditional natural liberation and unconditional spontaneous bliss in Sat-Cit-Ananda. Sublime dissolution of the ego. Unconditional, natural, spontaneous, and unbounded freedom, where the mental elusion of "self/ego" dissolves into the unlimited transpersonal non-dual all pervading omnipresent omniscient self-luminous living reality after absorption. Absorption occurs when something is taken "into" a medium and as a result disappears "from" something as a consequence. Absorb involves dissolution or diffusion usually into a larger medium. For example, dhyana (meditation) is the process of the absorption of the modalities of dualistic consciousness into universal all encompassing primordial consciousness. Here the ego-sense or dualistic sense of self is dissolved/absorbed. When that process of union/yoga is complete, it is known as samadhi which is unconditional sublime non-dual liberation. Paradoxically, the disintegration/dissolution of the ego, brings about the greater union/integration with the ultimate truth behind all phenomena. In a similar way, kaivalyam denotes the dissolution of the citta-vrtta.
Dissolution or absorption can indicate a disintegration, but absorption does not end there. Rather a re-integration occurs where the previous form is dissolved and then absorbed (integrated) into the larger solution. In this case the ego/self, the citta-vrtti, samskaras, and past karma, are all broken down and re-absorbed into a universal non-dual unconditioned awareness. That is symbolized by the Tandava, the dance of Shiva, which dissolves the old world and dances in the new.
Viveka: Discriminatory awareness/awareness. Recognition
Nimnam: inclination, bending toward.A proclivity towards.
Pragbharam: a momentum, predisposition, or setting into motion a vector toward: a gravitation or propensity
Cittam: mind stuff: ordinary dualistic consciousness; the ordinary dualistic unpurified mind-stream
Commentary: Recognizing the inclination of the mind-stuff, the discerning yogi gravitates toward unconditional liberation. On a basic level, this sutra states that upon applying viveka in ALL OUR RELATIONS, the mind gravitates toward kaivalyam (absolute liberation). The ALL is in the ONE, complete as the Great Integrity, boundless, timeless, and ever present primordial awareness. It has never been separate from us, but only obscured from being recognized. That ONE is in the ALL. It is the all. The One and All are One and All. That is the all presence evolutionary vector from beginningless time to ever-presence, timeless and illimitable.
Starting with viveka-nimnam, where the mind has become inclined toward viveka as vigilant awareness, the awareness of the observer expands being attracted to unconditioned liberation. Viveka-nimnam sets in motion the realization of relative truth, which discloses the mutual interdependence of all phenomena as well as their common source and origin existing as a natural unconditioned whole. This is the way to realize "Self" in non-dual terms of the whole, as well as the whole in terms of the many. Without differentiated consciousness (viveka) there is no Self knowledge -- there is no form and nothing to see and no seer. Attempting to isolate the seer from the seen or negate one or the other is even more futile. Rather total and complete natural liberation (kaivalya) only demands natural transconceptual non-dual clarity which is won by renouncing conceptualization process as a mental state. Thus the yogi differentiates between renouncing a dualistic or ideational mentality (way of perceiving phenomena) and that of renouncing form or phenomena. Hence kaivalya is a wholistic way of seeing, being, and engagement.
Here one can only move toward Kaivalyam (our natural state), approach it, and knock on its door so to speak; but it can not be entered into (as absorbed into it completely) as long as viveka has not become clarified (khyater) -- where the mind still maintains dualistic limitations or citta-vrtta. Kaivalya is natural liberation because it cannot be reified, as it is defined as absolute and absorption/re-integration.
The word, viveka, is often misunderstood because its use in authentic yoga is used very differently from that used in the samkhya context, as it is a state of awareness/wisdom that has defeated conceptual and intellectual analysis, not one which is ruled by such. In samkhya the word, viveka, is most often translated as discriminatory awareness within a dualistic context, for example, making the distinction between the real and the unreal, knower and that which is known, subject and object, and other dualistic and comparative analytical techniques/methodologies. Please see also II.25 where Patanjali defines what he means as Kaivalya.
The astute student will have noticed that this is the healing direction, toward which Pada 4 has been moving all the while, from fragmentation to re-integration; i.e., putting Humpty Dumpty back together again. One of the signal differences between Yoga as praxis and samkhya as a philosophical tradition is that samkhya's "enlightenment" is based upon philosophical abstraction, extraction, isolation, and dissociation, while that of yoga is based on integrative experience or union (samadhi). Yoga, (not samkhya), thus defines viveka as an instrumental awareness tool born from pure intrinsic attention (prajna), but seamlessly extended into multiplicity (differentiated awareness) in terms of ALL OUR RELATIONS. It arises as naked awareness or simple self awareness in meditation or astanga yoga, but when practiced over time this awareness grows to all things and beings as well as to the workings of the true nature of mind -- consciousness. Thus the practitioner starts to reap the fruits of yoga practice (liberation). It is realized through yoga praxis. In particular the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali can only be understood by the practitioners of its yoga (the Sutras acting as its guidebook).
So for example, at first in the practice of dhyana (the process of absorption) one begins to notice of the elementary means of awareness, where one becomes aware of the fluctuations of the citta-vrtta and how the mind chatter influences that which apparently is seen or imputed. As the citta-vrtta clear, one is able to perceive the true nature of nature (phenomena wavering as impermanent and on fire) as the magical display of primordial luminosity and compassion. The practitioner focuses awareness to the underlying ever present Now presence -- the intelligence behind the awareness -- the all encompassing and all interpenetrating intrinsic seed source intelligence, which is always available as awareness acknowledging awareness -- of timeless awareness reflected in ALL OUR RELATIONS, as the true nature of mind reveals the true nature of nature simultaneously, transpersonally, trans-cognitively without limits. Abiding in sacred presence for a fraction of a moment, then in progressively longer doses, then one becomes more inclined toward abiding/dissolving in this Now awareness more often.
After consistent practice over time then one cultivates and masters their innate evolutionary potential capacity of viveka-khyatir (the innate self-illuminating transpersonal discrimination wisdom that reveals the one in many, and the many in the one. Then differentiated consciousness and undifferentiated consciousness unite as inseparable -- where this awareness of awareness shines forth more steadily, effortlessly, naturally, and continuously from everywhere and everything interdependent and interconnected, whole, complete, and self liberating. Here the evolutionary power has accomplished her natural job, effecting the innate momentum of Maheshvara/siva/isvara.
Rather than remaining imprisoned or limited to a philosophic or intellectual inquiry into "self", the yogi engages in viveka as a recognition of the self luminous innate awareness found within an authentic yogic practice such as meditation (dhyana). Here viveka is a pointer that brings about a realization/recognition of the union of the innate light (the param purusha) in ALL OUR RELATIONS -- where the intrinsic and extrinsic worlds unite. Thus over time the yogi advances into an advanced`dhyana (meditation) practice experientially within an overall objectless/formless context, where even the most subtle object of thought or activity of mentation (vrtti) must become still (nirodha) and let go (hanam). As mentioned in Chapter II astanga yoga develops viveka, and viveka wakes us up so that our awareness and energy (cit-shakti) no longer becomes distracted, dissipated, nor dulled eventually pointing to the eternal Source of that awareness -- to complete re-integration in the awareness of that innate awareness.
In the previous padas, Patanjali addresses dharana (concentration), samyama, and pratyaya where the observer mind still has objects of concentration, be they subtle or coarse. Viveka meant in that beginning phase is elementary. It is the application of awareness or vigilance which grows through consistent meditation practice, so that the practitioner (sadhak) becomes increasingly aware of the dualistic contents of the mind (pratyaya). Then the sadhak is no longer unconsciously victimized by it, but can then let it go. With this elementary sharpened viveka, as soon as the mind begins to wander, the wandering is dropped. Eventually the yogi learns how to recognize even the very beginning tendency of vrtti, and hence being able to empty those contents freeing the old mental and energetic habits and patterns (citta-vrtti) before they even arise. When the obscurations sufficiently let go, then the inherent light of siva starts to shine more brightly. Siva is seen in all things and beings, yet at the same time, through the eyes of the wholographic singularity, the richness of the differentiation process is magnified fearlessly and immeasurably unbounded by space or sequential time.
In dhyana, unlike dharana or samyama, the advanced sadhak does not bring the awareness back to an isolated object (be it the breath, the energy centers, or even subtle thought processes), but rather no object, no separate self, no observer, no meditation just pure awareness -- awareness of timeless awareness leading up to viveka-khyatir (a self revealing luminosity of discriminatory wisdom which is all encompassing). So normally at the beginning of meditation, it is a time to experience and relax in the empty mind, open, and clarified mind. Then as the sword of viveka becomes sharpened, then tendencies toward distraction, agitation, and dissipation (vrttis) eventually cease. We follow this awareness back to its Source and back again as one coherent non-dual vibratory process of the evolutionary power connected up with source. (see pratiprasava in Sutra 34) .
After successful mastering the process of elementary self-awareness (noticing the wandering of mental tendencies and the arising and falling away of the obscurations), they lose their power/domination over the mind. Something larger is recognized. Then this elementary type of sharpened pure awareness (vigilance or viveka) opens the door to purusa consciousness without an object. Although viveka, as an awareness tool, is extremely valuable to develop through astanga yoga and especially in meditation, like all "techniques", it must eventually be given up like a boat which has reached its destination, in order to cross over onto the yonder shore (viveka-khyatir, nirbija-samadhi, and kaivalyam). When differentiated reality (the relative world) is understood as seamless with undifferentiated formless reality (absolute reality), then liberation (kaivalyam) is realized.
A special grace of viveka is that it discloses the nature of the wandering mind through its own self revealing innate awareness of reversing its focus upon the true nature of mind -- the intelligent consciousness principle underlying consciousness itself (cit) while engaged in differentiation/existence (shakti). It thus creates the space for the awareness of the pre-existing innate space which always existed since beginningless time but was ignored -- remained unrecognized. That is the transpersonal non-dual primordial awareness of universal undifferentiated conscious (the purusa) to enter into Now awareness as Now awareness and hence one realizes swarupa as being empty of a separate self. Through subject/object nonduality, the ego (as separate self) gets out of the way.
Repeated application of viveka (via astanga yoga) is needed at first in order to take us across the river, but it too must also be left at the shore, like a boat and its oars, in order to step upon the shore of viveka-khyatir. Clarity of what? What does the mid see then? WHo is this mind who sees? Who/what is the true purusa? This and more are revealed in authentic yoga practice.
At the intermediate of the three greater levels of the path of meditation, the paramita of aspiration is perfected. All the obscurations associated with unfulfilled aspirations are purified. Twelve sets of qualities are gained, such as the ability to enter into and arise from, in a single instant, as many samadhi meditations as there are atoms in a million great universes. One can take birth as Brahma, the ruler over a second-order universe of one thousand times one thousand worlds. This ninth bhumi is called ‘Perfect Intellect’, because the bodhisattvas who have reached this stage possess perfect discriminating awareness and the like. "
~ A Brief Guide to the Stages and Paths of the Bodhisattvas by Patrul Rinpoche, translated, by Adam Pearcey
This is where yoga practice and even meditation ends. HERE we are no longer locked into the world of form only. There is no longer the separate object of the meditation, no object for the ego to become absorbed into, no separate observer, no meditator, no meditation, and no one who is meditating. Then there is non-dual integration in nirbijah samadhi. In other words according to Pada II and this sutra, viveka is used to prime the pump of the refocusing process upon kaivalyam as a non-dual experience (free from subject/object duality), then the new awareness takes off by itself but is hindered until the past samskaras (conditioned associations) are completely eradicated (as it is in nirbija samadhi).
In darkness are they who worship only the world. In greater darkness are they who worship the Infinite alone. Those who accept both (seen in relationship), save themselves from death by the knowledge of the former and attain immortality by the knowledge of the latter…And one who sees all beings in his own Self [transpersonal and non-dual identification] and his own Self [ universal and all pervading] in all beings, no more loathes and hates." Isha Upanishad 9-11
Swami Venkatesananda translates Sutra 26:
Then the whole mind flows towards wisdom and the realization of complete freedom or liberation.
Practice: In hatha yoga such as in asana and pranayama practices the opposites are balanced out through adjusting physical movements, movement of breath, energy, and awareness in relationship to nature. In such a balanced (sattvic) state a profound state of synchronicity is invited in The Great Continuum is like the Saraswati River at prayag, eternally flowing although "normally" hidden. Hence sunya is associated with the sushumna nadi -- sometimes called the sunya nadi when the two polar opposites are united and the middle channel is open. Better said, this occurs spontaneously when the central channel is opened, uniting undifferentiated pure awareness with form, spirit with nature, heaven with earth, crown (sahasrara) and muladhara, shiva with shakti, or ayn soph with shekinah as a co-emergent experience.
The Buddha said, "kulaputras, there is a comparison that can be drawn between the countless flowers conjured up by the Buddha that suddenly withered and the innumerable conjured buddha images with their many adornments, seated in the lotus position within the flowers, who cast forth light so exceedingly rare that there was no one in the assembly who did not show reverence. In a similar fashion, kulaputras, when I regard all beings with my buddha cakshur (eye), I see that hidden within the kleshas (barbs) of raga (greed), lobha (confusion), dvesha (hatred) and moha (obscuration) there is seated augustly and unmovingly the Tathagata jnana , the Tathagata-vision and the Tathagata kaya. kulaputras, all beings, though they find themselves with all sorts of kleshas, have a tathagata-garbha that is eternally unsullied, and that is replete with virtues no different from my own. Moreover, kulaputras, it is just like a person with supernatural vision who can see the bodies of tathagatas seated in the lotus position inside the flowers, even though the petals are not yet unfurled; whereas after the wilted petals have been removed, those tathagatas are manifested for all to see. In similar fashion, the Buddha can really see the beings (sattva) tathagata-garbha. And because he wants to disclose the tathagata-garbha to them, he expounds the sutras and the Dharma, in order to destroy kleshas and reveal the buddha-dhatu (buddha-element, buddha-nature). kulaputras, such is the dharma of all Buddhas. Whether or not buddhas appear in the world, the tathagata-garbha of all beings are eternal and unchanging. It is just that they are covered by kleshas of sentient beings. When the Tathagata appears in the world, he expounds the Dharma far and wide to remove their ignorance and tribulation and to purify their universal wisdom. kulaputras, if there is a bodhisattva who has faith in this teaching and who practices it with ekagra-citta (single-pointed citta), he will attain vimukti and correct universal enlightenment and for the sake of the world he will perform Buddha deeds far and wide."
The Buddha, The Tathagatagarbha Sutra"
The pathways of thought constructs (pratyaya) that tint and obscure our intrinsic and naked intimate open-awareness based on associations with past impressions (samskaras) have to be broken completely asunder (chidresu).
The disruption/interruption of that (tac-chidresu) propensity toward total and final liberation (kaivalyam) arises (bhyah) from old hair triggers embedded (samskaras) as partial fragmented contents (pratyaya) of the mental continuum. Old samskaras may still arise causing interruptions of the process toward kaivalya and thus the field of consciousness will remain limited and partial (pratyaya).
chidresu: to cut into pieces; to break apart; disjointed or discontinuous.
pratyaya: Contents or objects of the mind. That which is contained or entranced within the limited, fragmented, or partial field of dualistic cognition; e.g., of mental imputations that dictate a context of a separate "I" and a separate "it". Pratyaya is a stubborn habit of the deluded/dualistic mindset to break as the tendency to box events into pst categories is often under the influence of samskaras. Pratyaya is the container of isolated cognitions and fixated pictures that create the limitations of conceptual thought contrivances such as chronic mental objectification, post traumatic syndromes, and regressive behavior.
antarani: near, intimate, close, interior, contained within, associated with.
samskarebhyah: arising from samskaras
samskaras: psychic or karmic residues. Imprints of conditioned body/mind patterns. Karmic residues, embedded triggers, buttons, unconscious compulsive programs, post traumatic residues, past results capable of triggering new kleshic activity. Samskaras thus being associations made by the mental apparatus based upon past events, hence conditioning comes into play. Superficially speaking, samskaras manifest as old habitual patterns of thinking which limit clear perception/presence. That conditioning can be purged via yoga. The word, samskara, literally means, to make together, hence bonding together two or more things, mental associations, thought constructs, fantasies, fabrication, inference, etc. In reality ALL things are connected, interdependent, mutually co-arise, and our relations.
Commentary: The word, pratyaya, is used to describe the partial or fragmented contents of the dualistic mind at any given moment. Pratyaya is the condition/content when the context is fragmented/limited to citta-vrtta tendencies. It operates within the frame of the subject/object dualistic split, where apparent separate and independent mental objects occupy the field of consciousness at a particular time viewed by an conceptualized independent observer (the "i", elf, or ego). In reality, of course this tendency of the conditioned mind must be broken asunder. Pratyaya is the state of mind, which is bent around objects or groupings of objects, but lacks wholistic/holographic context or true self-awareness.
The ordinary dualistic mindset perceives objects in a limited and disconnected sense, lacking contextual wholeness or integrity. Hence, this creates fragmented associated contents (physical or mental objects) based on limited identification processes. The observer/experiencer and the observed/experienced event are frozen by the mental prisons of the citta-vrtti, where "reality" is devalued, distorted, and filtered within the limitations imposed by pre-judgments which are ignored through chronic egoic pain and fear being deemed unbelievable, incomprehensible, inconceivable, overwhelming stupor, incredible horror, and chronic and plausible self rationalization and amnesia. Pratyaya is thus the limited dualistic mindset which arises through the action of karma, klesha, vasana, and samskara -- in short, the ideation process. Pratyaya is also the result of conceptualization processes which ascribe meaning to objective "things", while identifying self as separate from "it". It is an inherent component of an objectified "reality". It is a limited cognition establishing one’s limited world view, viewpoint, or discolorations that produce what we call the contents of the mind. It is important not to conflate the perceived contents of the dualistic or conceptual mindset, as the world or reality -- as something substantial, independent, and self-existing by itself.
However, a higher state of cognition is samprajnana (sampajanna -Pali) where the observer not only is aware of the object, but is also aware that they are observing an object. That is self-awareness, or perceiving that one is perceiving, while perceiving an object. A further state of awareness occurs in asamprajnata, which is free from subject/object dualistic cognition (asamprajnata), Asamprajnata is achieved when the observer's awareness has become aware of the innate awareness or primordial wisdom from which consciousness timelessly springs forth (the fountainhead of awareness) simultaneously in all beings and things, where nothing is excluded nor needs to be included. That wisdom eye is opened when the contents of the mind are offered up completely as a sacrifice to isvara (the param-purusa). When that wisdom eye is opened, then the true nature of nature as the evolutionary force is recognized (shakti). So just to say that the contents of the dualistic mind (pratyaya) have to be surrendered at the same time that the last samskaras are cleared. Then there is unblemished vision.
This sutra then pertains to the process of cleansing the mirror via meditation (insight/vipassana meditation and samatha meditation) until kaivalya (liberation) is attained and how this process becomes interrupted by practices which interrupt/break the samskaric connections. We break the samskara in order to connect with the universal source -- the cosmic golden egg, hiranyagarbha or tathagatagarbha matrix, the hologram-- call it as you wish.
In these cases viveka, as the instrumental tool of recognition or self awareness, becomes invoked in noticing that the mind has become distracted, that an old samskara has become activated as an operational modality, and hence it can be rooted out by remediating its energetic pattern. Viveka, as relational holographic awareness, allows us to recognize the samskara, to bring consciousness toward it, and thus one is no longer unconsciously victimized by it. Applying viveka as discriminative awareness toward its energetic dynamic aspect (cit-prana) continuously, samskara and vasana are deprogrammed and uprooted because their operations are no longer ignored, denied, avoided, or run away from in chronic ignorance (avidya). As darkness is destroyed by light, so too is unconscious habitual patterns destroyed through the application of pure awareness and prana (cit-prana).
Through this practice, eventually one achieves direct experience of the true nature of one's own mind. That is not merely an intellectual or logical understanding. Thus the yogi gradually awakens out of subconscious and limited thought processes, not by incessantly gathering more facts, acquiring more objects of ordinary knowledge, nor by analyzing or mulling over such, but rather by abiding in the self revealing Source of the knowledge of the true nature of mind itself. When the wisdom eye opens, then discriminative wisdom and undifferentiated truth merge as inseparable with primordial wisdom.
This is accomplished through the power of vidya (pure vision or clarity) or the union of siva/shakti as cit-shakti, or non-dual deity and consort, all amounting to the same thing. This is likened to the shining the Light of Grace (when holes in the past karma have become pierced), "Shining the Light", or opening up the flood gates of shakti then occur spontaneously. This is the realm beyond words, where discursive thought, quandary, further analysis, or elaboration is not necessary nor desired.
Of course, true practitioners of yoga, must begin where they are at, within the context of their own actual experience, while avoiding the unfortunate impatient propensities to start where we want to be in the future. So by embracing/recognizing the samskaras in the present, we come to terms with it, truly understand it, and then through awareness and recognition we are able to transform and purify it. We no longer are reactive, controlled or victimized by it. Until the pathway of samskaric processes of thought are broken asunder, the mind will still wander back out of samadhi.
No longer in denial or attempting to escape from samsaric mental habits, the yogi becomes fearless, being able to confront what-is-as-it-is. Through effective practice, eventually the residual samskaras are dissolved and annulled. Samadhi and Kaivalya thus are two terms describing the same realization. "Taj-jah samskaro'nya-samskara-pratibandhi " or through the samskara of the Age-old Supreme Truth Bearing Wisdom (rtam-bhara prajna) the yogi dissolves the veil of ignorance (see Sutra I. 48-51). Such is the immediate precursor to Sabija Samadhi. Then of course the recurring mental obscurations of the mind-field will also no longer recur. So this and the following sutras correspond directly to the process of nirbija samadhi as described in Sutras I.49-51.
So the task is to empty the contents of the mind and purify the samskaras, through self awareness and then pure awareness by residing in the light of consciousness itself. Eventually even viveka as a process of discriminating wisdom must be given up, as it is still a practice that is applied toward eliminating the disruptions of samskaras, kleshas, ignorance, karma, and vasana as we will see in the following sutras.
"It is possible, during such periods when this awareness of this freedom is interrupted there arise other thoughts on account of the mind’s past habits of thinking ." Swami Venkatesananda
Sutras IV-28-34 describe what happens when all the impediments have become removed via meditation (dhyana).
Likewise those samskaras which create kleshas (esham) can also be deposed (hanam) by the same previously mentioned (uktam) remediation procedures that were used for liberating the old dysfunctional mental habits (vasanas) mentioned above. When the samskaras and vasana (above) are removed the kleshas no longer manifest.
esam: pertaining to those aforementioned
hanam: a letting go; relinquishment; disposal.
kleshavad: related to psychic afflictions/obscurations and negative emotions.
uktam: mentioned: spoken about, as previously identified.
Commentary: Also see Sutra 30-32. Perhaps better stated as a positive, the creation of kleshas are disposed when their creation process is recognized and abandoned.
Swami Venkatesananda translates Sutra 28:
"These habit-molds are also to be treated as sources of psychic distress or disturbance and got rid of in the manner described already."
Remove the samskara and the kleshas are removed. Old mental habits (vasana), samskaras (triggers), and kleshas can be remediated through effective yogic practices. That is purpose of ashtanga yoga, yam, niyam, asana, pranayama, pratyhara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi. In particular, meditation (dhyana) was prescribed by Sri Patanjali. Insight meditation (vipassana) in turn brings forward samprajnana (self awareness as awareness of one being aware or the clear perception of the perception process). Then by awareness of the process of awareness, one becomes liberated sitting in that primordial light. All these yoga practices work to effect that continuity of primordial presence as primordial wisdom. Intense meditation resting in that state for sustained periods of time (in non-dual bliss) will burn off any residual past samskaras and associated kleshas eventually disclosing the innate primordial Buddha wisdom or isvara.
The old habits of dualistic fixations (or objective trance like activities) can be disrupted and broken up by the synergistic effects of all and any of these inter-related processes of astanga yoga. Besides meditation (dhyana) one powerful way is pranayama (conscious breathing).
A bon dedication prayer comes to mind:
Practice: Through the method of effective hatha yoga practices that apply asana, pranayama, dharana, and dhyana in combination with receptive and efferent synergistic synchronization activated by samyama, the yogi having broken old dysfunctional and neurotic psycho-neurophysiological patterns of the body/mind, releasing old kleshic patterns and vasana, while new karmic bio-psychic patterns of breath and mind are activated and harmonized, the energy body is purified, the mental/emotional body is opened, and the wisdom body becomes attuned to our transconceptual true original nature. The yogi resonates attuned to the vibration of the cosmos. We become prepared for final activation and integration (nirbija samadhi). Finally the old psychic imprints (samskaras) are eliminated. Thus, effectively applied hatha yoga practice works directly upon the elimination of vasana, klesha, and samskaras. Such include asana, pranayama, pratyhara, dharana, and dhyana, while being guided toward the recognizing the light of unending samadhi. Thus is clear light yoga. As intermediary practices, especially powerful are the practices of the prana vidyas by flooding the body/mind's pre-existing samskaric gloomy programming with prana, light, rays, vividness, sound, and awareness.
Thus free from selfish motivation (akusidasya) while abiding steadily (sarvatha) in self-luminous clarified awareness that discloses a profound mutuality (viveka-khyater) the rain-cloud of natural law (dharma-megha) coalesces as dharmic heart drops, which are completely integated (prasankhyane), absorbed (samadhih), and rains forth [thus the cessation of samskaras, kleshas, and karma which cause duhkha are washed clean and removed].
Dharma-megha combining IV.29-30 reads: "Thus freed from selfish motivation while abiding steadily (sarvatha) in self luminous discriminatory awareness ,the rain-cloud of natural law (dharma-megha) is completely integrated (prasankhyane), absorbed (samadhih), and pours forth, [thus the cessation of samskaras, klesha, and karma which cause duhkha are accomplished."
Dharma-megha: Rain cloud of Dharma. Rain cloud of pure virtue; rain cloud of virtue, rain cloud of virtual reality, rain cloud of truth. Compare with Rtam-bhara tatra-prajna in I.48. Here viveka-khyati (the clarity of mutuality) has become effortless and spontaneous. Dharma-megha samadhi occurs in the final stages of sahaj samadhi where the outpouring or effusion of the highest dharma, which is "neither white nor black," thus accomplishes the highest aim of human life. Through this realization insight into the foundation of all knowledge is accomplished.
Dharma-megha rains down the dharma which releases and erases without a trace all impediments and karma. Hence it is an unconditional and unqualified samadhi where the mindfield has abraded the notion of a separate meditator and meditation or object of meditation, but is consciously at-wonderment with all. The effect of this samadhi is the destruction of all karma and vasana.
Akusidasya: Free from selfish motivation. Fee from "self". Selfless.
Sarvatha: In all instances or at all times. Not to be confused with sarvartham, the all purpose or collective all encompassing mutual highest intent of all sentient beings. The para-artham or purpose of all life.
Prasankyane: Complete and sublime integration. Omniscience.
Commentary: Pure awareness and vigilance (in viveka) leads toward primordial wisdom, when applied steadily and intensely, will allow the instrument of viveka-khyatir (luminous self revealing conscious, clear, and lucid unbroken open awareness), which is the remedial propensity where old samskaras, old mind habits (vasanas), and vrtti become zapped/let go, dissolve, nipped in the bud as soon as or before they arise to effect their natural purpose. This does not mean that the kleshas are suppressed or repressed, but rather that the very process of their arising has become reversed and irrelevant. When bathing in the ocean, there is no need for bath water. Ultimately viveka khyater is clarity aspect of the mind or another way of saying that is that it is the clarity of the mind as the unity of swarupa-sunyam and clarity (III.3). III.3 is where Patanjali defines samadhi as swarupa sunyam, merging true self nature as truly empty of an independent or separate self; i.e., selflessness. Thus any selfish motives must ultimately be loosened and then purged through intense yogic practice. That is in reality a re-statement of the profound mutuality of what is perceived (the true nature of mind allows pure lucidity which reveals the non-dual brightness of all phenomena). If this sounds intellectual, it is not. This is realized transconceptually through transconceptual processes Or at first through practices which produce transconceptual lucency). These practices will confound the intellect because it is beyond intellectual/conceptual understanding -- it is intelligent wonder.
Finally the profound mutuality of all things and beings together with knowledge of their their singular source will appear as an undivided unity and coalesce.Such is not book knowledge or capable of being known in dualistic terms. Such is viveka-khyater as a profound sphere of interconnectedness -- a profound mutuality is known in ALL OUR RELATIONS.
"In a real sense all life is inter-related. All persons are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. I can never be what I ought to be until you are what you ought to be, and you can never be what you ought to be until I am what I ought to be. This is the inter-related structure of reality."
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.
"Vasudev Kutumbhkam", meaning, "Creation is all One Family".
It is normal in beginning meditation (dhyana) for beginners to get carried away by discursive thoughts for long durations. These durations can be measured in length, in terms of time, as the amount of words, sentences or even multiple paragraphs in length. Books, volumes, and many symphonies may be written by the discursive mind as the beginner meditator allows oneself to become distracted, possessed, or infatuated; but that greater all encompassing symphony which includes all and everything is revealed known to the accomplished meditator as residing within and without (both).
As yoga practice evolves, the sadhak notices the appearance of the wavelike motions of these discursive thought patterns earlier, sooner and quicker (in less sentences or fewer words) through applying vigilant attention (viveka) upon the contents and direction of the mind and the process of consciousness itself. Then one notices even before a half sentence is created, then the beginning of word, even more subtly before any arising of even the faintest upswelling of a word, even before the tendency for the mind to wander at all. Stillness and with that profound clarity and openness is realized. The mind rests in its true self nature (swarupa-sunyam). The awareness is then drawn back into that Source of awareness itself while all things and beings are known within that ineffable light. That is the operation catalyzed by a heightened viveka-khyater, not as an end in itself, but as a pointer or instrumental tool. Then through practice a diamond edged sharpness (viveka-khyatir) is realized revealing a profound non-dual unity between all things and beings -- all of creation as well as the evolutionary process. Through the very sharp sword of viveka-khyateh a suitable open space is created for the rain cloud of dharma to coalesce.
Here one naturally is drawn to rest their attention back into the intrinsic luminous source of awareness itself. In this way one rests longer in the silence and stillness and in such a way samskara, vasana, klesha, avidya, and karma gradually become reprogrammed. The internal conscious energy becomes purified, activated, and expanded, so that one becomes accustomed to and familiar with abiding for increasingly longer periods of time in the non-dual universal – the samadhi where the clouds of the wandering mind (vrttis) no longer obstruct the Pure Universal Source of Consciousness. Thus we absorb the rain drop heart essence from the dharma cloud, so to speak.
At the greater of the three greater levels of the path of meditation, the paramita of primordial wisdom is perfected. Bodhisattvas at this stage are freed from the conceptual obscurations. They gain qualities, such as being able to enter into and arise from, in a single instant, as many samadhis as there are inconceivable atoms in inconceivable buddhafields. Just as before, they possess the twelve sets of qualities, ending with the perfect retinue, which at this stage means being surrounded by as many attendants as there atoms in inconceivable buddhafields. These bodhisattvas can take birth as the ruler of the gods of a pure realm. They serve as the regent of a buddha and bring benefit to others on a vast scale. This tenth bhumi is called ‘Cloud of Dharma’, because bodhisattvas who have reached this stage cause rain-like Dharma to fall from the clouds of their dharani and meditation, upon the fields of beings to be trained.
The Path of No-More-Learning
At this level, immeasurable rays of light shine out from the bodhisattva’s body and make offerings to all the buddhas of the past, present and future, who send back tremendous rays of empowering light. Subtle cognitive obscurations, which are latent habitual tendencies, are vanquished through the antidote, vajra-like samadhi, and complete and full enlightenment is attained. Of the five paths, this is the fifth. It is called ‘no-more-learning’, because there is no further training to be done on any path. When the path of no-more-learning is realized, the bodhisattva reaches the eleventh bhumi, ‘Universal Radiance’. "
~ A Brief Guide to the Stages and Paths of the Bodhisattvas by Patrul Rinpoche, translated, by Adam Pearcey
Swami Venkatesananda translates Sutra 29:
Where there is no interest in or attraction whatsoever even for the highest kind of intellectual knowledge and experience and where there is uninterrupted self-awareness there comes a state of enlightenment which is like a cloud that showers virtue or order.
See commentary on viveka in Sutra II.15, Sutra II 26, Sutra II. 28, and in Pada Four Sutras IV. 8, 15, 21, 26, 27.
Thus when the vehicle has become purified, strengthened, and capable of receiving -- hen it is an open doorway for truth, truth descends. When earth raises up to embrace the sky, the sky also descend to embrace the earth. The result of uniting muladhara chakra with the sahasrara -- the ida with the pingala is, the apana with the prana -- shakti with shiva -- sat and cit -- all brings about propitious flow. This is the Rtambhara of Sutra I.48. THAT is yoga.
"Sutra I. 48 Rtambhara tatra prajna says: "Then Supreme Truth Bearing (rtam-bhara) Inner Wisdom (prajna) self-arises, dawns and prevails.
"Your truth? No, THE TRUTH, And come with me in search of it. Yours, keep it for you."
Practice: As an attentive hatha yoga practice breaks up the old conditioned psycho-neurophysiological patterns of the body/mind, new space and energy are allow for a heightened experience. While engaged in conscious hatha yoga asana, pranayama, pratyhara, and dharana practice when we give complete attention/focus to our present mutual relationship of the body, the breath, the energy body, and the mind itself and then breathe into THAT interconnected integrity then we can directly experience unity consciousness as an all inclusive mutuality independent from conditioned mental processes. Analytical inquiry as contemplation practices also leads the practitioner to the state of transconceptual realization as does dhyana (emptiness/objectless meditation). These practices are to be engaged upon in individual sessions.
In this way (tatah) the waves of karma and klesha are completely reversed and cease (nivrttih).
Commentary: The cessation of the machinations (nivrttih) of both karma and kleshas is realized through dharma-meghah samadhi. Through the powerful self reprogramming technique of meditation, utilizing awareness tools (such as viveka-khyater), the roots of the samskaras and vasana in form of kleshas and karma are destroyed. The awareness has been pointed back toward its source and that light now illumines all that one sees. Final liberation is thus close at hand. Karma can also be seen as the sum of "complications", relationships established through fear, attachment, and ignorance (in short through acting on the kleshas) that we have constructed through all our past actions as well as our present desire, fear, and hope. Here the kleshas must be burned up so we do not create more negative karma, but also the past karma must be dissolved. Both must be annihilated. The end of karma is the starting point of divine grace (citi-shakter iti). The implicate order (Logos) or Dharma (laws of Reality) reveal themselves naturally. Wisdom supplants ignorance.
When thus order is restored in the mind and therefore in behavior, all actions that favor psychic distress are effortlessly avoided.
Karma operates in the realm of causes and conditions. It determines conditioned/programmed reality, form. thought formations, habitual tendencies, and sequential relationships. Here, the unconditioned, unformed, natural, preprogrammed reality takes over and shines its light. Such recognition is ordinarily obscured, partial, colored, tained, and limited, but nonetheless, it is always available to be recognized and accessed. When karmic processes are extinguished for a yogin, the boundless natural dorway swings open, illuminating the great expanse, the true nature of mind and nature. That is where kaivalya (the unconditioned) awaits us.
In this way, such as in authentic hatha yoga techniques (asana, pranayama, pratyhara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi as taught by Goraksa and others hatha yoga masters, the kleshas and karma are annihilated. What is left is a purified and open vehicle, the jivamuktan as the spontaneous and absolutely free expressions (the arms and legs) of unconditional divine will. This true alignment of the body becomes in synch with the breath, the mind, all of creation and the creative force as one gigantic WHOLE. This is the non-dual resolution of purusa/prakrti (shiva/shakti) where all the gunas are resolved as well. This is the dance of Shiva. Free from karma and klesha, thence kaivalyam is realized.
When (tada) all veils (sarva-avarana) and impurities (mala) are removed (apetasya) so that the knowledge of infinite mind (jnanasya-anantyaj-jneyam) is revealed, that leaves little more (alpam) to be disclosed.
avarana: veil or covering
mala: impurity; corrupting influence;
apetasya: free from; gone beyond; departed
jnanasya: knowledge of or pertaining to
anantyat: infinite, boundless, and eternal.
jneyam: to be known
jnanasyanantyaj-jneyam: knowledge of the infinity of mind--of all which can be known -- the limitless hologram.
alpam: very little or small.
When the true nature of one's own mind is revealed in true gnosis, then the true superlative and magical nature of nature is simultaneously known. No boundaries remain, to a boundless mind with no object to fixate upon..
Sw. Venkatesananda once again:
"Then, since all the veils have been removed and all the impurities have been destroyed, there is infinite knowledge - little remains to be known or experienced for, the objects of knowledge (or experience are seen to be conditioned, finite and worthless.)"
Then (tada) after the afflictive emotions (kleshas) and karma have departed (sutra 30), the covering/veil of ignorance is lifted, revealing the Infinite Mind, the large or great perfect expanse, the Great Integrity, the Mahamudra which bestows continuous access to Infinite Knowledge and grace, what more is to be known or obtained?
"That which is termed Mahamudra,
Is not a "thing" that can be pointed to.
It is the mind's own nature
that is Mahamudra [i.e., the Absolute State].
It is not something to be perfected or transformed.
Thus, to realize this, is to realize
that the whole world of appearance is Mahamudra.
This is the absolute all-inclusive Dharmakaya [i.e.,the Ultimate Embodiment of Buddhahood].
Uncontrived and just as it is,
the inconceivable Dharmakaya,
is itself effortless meditation.
Trying to attain something is not meditation.
Seeing everything like space, like a magical illusion,
Neither meditating nor not meditating,
Neither separate nor not separate:
Such is the Yogin's realization.
All virtuous and evil actions
Become liberated through this knowledge.
The sinful defilements become the Absolute Gnosis itself;
becoming the Yogin's friend, this is a fire consuming the forest of trees.
Where then is going or staying?
Who then needs to run to a Monastery to meditate?
If one does not understand this point,
liberation will be but a temporary event.
When the true nature is realized,
one abides in the unwavering state.
Whether or not one is in the state of Integration or not,
There is nothing to be corrected by antidote or meditation.
Whatever arises is devoid of self-nature.
Appearances are auto-liberated into the Sphere of Reality (Dharmadhatu).
Conceptual creation is auto-liberated into Absolute Gnosis (Mahajnana).
The non-duality [of these two] is the Dharmakaya.
Like the flow of a great river,
Whatever occurs is meaningful and true.
This is the eternal Buddha state,
The Great Bliss, transcending the Worldly Cycle.
All phenomena are empty of self-identity,
Wherein even the concept of emptiness is eliminated.
Free of concepts, clinging not to mental projections,
is the Path of all the Enlightened Ones."
From, the "Concise Summary Of Mahamudra As Spontaneously Sung By the Master Maitripa", translated by the Dharma Fellowship
Practice: Through functional hatha yoga as taught in the Goraksa Sataka, Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Gherand Samhita, and Shiva Samhita, which are all in accord with Patanjali's Yoga Sutras in an expanded manner, the coverings (avarana) that separate the five koshas are removed and all the bodies (koshas) and kayas become aligned, synchronized, and act as a frictionless unity. The yams and niyams also are expressed spontaneously as every breath is dictated as evidence of that transpersonal non-dual union. The practice is simplified as a profoundly healing movement, dancing in the new and beautiful (the Tandava). That is authentic yoga. Oh how wondrous!
Then processes of dualistic differentiation, which previously appeared as shifting combinations of diverse qualities (parinama) that were imagined to be products of compounded constructions of individual elements of the created universe (gunas), cease their apparently disparate actions. Pure vision discloses a profound pre-existing interconnectedness (innate integrity), which discloses the profound interconnection of all of all the parts of nature, its profound integrity; its intrinsic completeness, wholeness, wholesomeness, and total integration which ultimately fulfills (samaptir).
tatah: hence; from that.
krta: done; the product of; made from; the result.
parinama: transformation; shift
krama: sequential succession; linear order
samaptir: completion; coalescence; a culmination.
gunanam: conditioned phenomena. Qualities or characteristics of form and thought formations. In classical Indian philosophy the created universe (form) is characterized via the three guna classification system; i.e., sattva, rajas, and tamas. It is cogent to realize that the gunas do not ever operate independently by themselves, but are regulated by the greater integrity of prakrti which in turn is inseparable from purusa, just as shakti is inseparable from siva.
Commentary: Here the mind is no longer conflated with the conditioned phenomena that it partially perceives. Limited dualistic tendencies have become annihilated. What is left is the Great Integrity, whole and complete in itself. On one hand never changing, primordial and eternal (shiva); while on the hand ever changing and never ending (shakti). That process is known as the play or sport of shiva/shakti. Siva is revealed through shakti. Shakti is revealed by shiva. Form reveals its essence, which is sunya in samadhi. Form has no separate solid existence from timeless source and infinite future. Void and form, the absolute and relative, siva and shakti, purusa and prakriti, ida and pingala, when realized as a coherent non-dual co-emergent synergistic mutuality reveals the intimate integrity innate within all beings and things.
The sharpened edge of viveka honed from years of meditation practice and yoga bears fruit in freeing the mind from wandering, becoming fixated, or bound to any separate object (mental or physical), even the most subtle. Here the awareness rests in awareness of its own true nature and its inherent original primordial sourceless source, while the operation of the gunas (defining and comparing "reality" in terms of relative qualities to other phenomena -- saguna) reveals a profound non-dual interdependence.
Here the gunas are no longer understood as separate or discrete forces, because their essential integrity, purpose, inherent order, and meaning is directly perceived within a greater interactive integrity (prakrti) which is a pre-existing natural non-dual perspective as the inherent original order that governs all of nature (and hence the gunas). The gunas, and hence prakrti, do not resolve back into their Source, but more so they were never truly separate from primordial Source Siva) in Reality. rather it was only our acquired ignorance which made it seem so. Here the I-it world of egoic separateness -- the world of apparent and seemingly discrete forms -- is broken asunder (nirguna) because its underlying true nature is revealed as interdependent (not consisting of a separate self) as swarupa=sunyam. In reality Tat Tvam Asi.
We wake up from the illusory state caused by avidya is broken asunder. We realize that our preexisting state of awareness had become corrupted/seduced in a disjointed/distorted connection/union into a vague dualistic world of fragmented "reality" (saguna) where the seer missed the universal context of reality in its completion (samaptir)-- the wholeness and uninterrupted continuity of the Great Integrity. Now there is open sky and completeness shines forth naturally.
Then the previous false associations of the citta-vrtti and their unsatisfactory connections are sundered and severed, sunya reveals the formless or nirguna, where we are no longer bounded by dualistic illusion of the gunas as being unrelated or separate from Source. Hence the reabsorption of the gunas have already happened. The seemingly separation of the gunas from primordial consciousness is merely the "normal" dualistic unbalanced state of avidya (ignorance). When we disengage from that false identification with ego (asmita) -- when we isolate ourselves from the illusion of separate forms (it-objects), then we can join with the "real" -- a complete and lasting integration (nirbija samadhi) is established. Then the fragmented mind rests and experiences completeness/wholeness -- it ceases grasping/craving) and all false identification process ends. Thus our true purpose (tatah krta-arthanam) in experiencing the qualitative differentiated phenomena as such (the gunas) have culminated. Here the succession of further shifts and transformation has end (parinama-krama-samaptir). This is an attribute of nirbija samadhi as well as kaivalyam.
Thus kaivalyam is the simultaneous co-arising isolation from asmita (from the delusion of separate existence) on one hand, conjoined with the Greater All encompassing interconnection with the beginningless unborn eternal weave/weaver of All (shiva/shakti) on the other hand of god. The word, god, comes with too much baggage, scripture, words, belief systems, dramas, limited identifications, and interpretations, enough so to become less than worthless; yet if it were used devoid of such baggage, it may serve to connote union as the hologram. It is the seamless and perfect marriage of dharmakaya (void) and rupakaya (form) in human expression. Such a "reality" is immeasurable, boundless, limitless, and remains undefined by labels and words. Sat-Chit-Ananda!
Here in union of pure undifferentiated consciousness and pure instantaneous beingness, wholeness, fulfillment, and completion in nirbij samadhi is achieved by realizing the innate underlying Great Integrity. As such then there arises no further need to apply the remediation of viveka while abiding the non-dual trans-personal state of ALL OUR RELATIONS.
Swami Venkatesananda says:
"Thus, they who have realized this have fulfilled their mission in life. And the beginningless succession of changes of the qualities or characteristics, that was falsely assumed to be related to the self which itself was the first notion - comes to an end. (Or, the succession of changes of qualities which have reached the fulfillment of their purpose comes to an end.)"
Practice: Previous disrupted, isolated, disparate, and fragmented patterns of body, breath, speech, and mind cease, when this great interdependent mutuality of all beings and things are realized as our own true nature. A natural alliance with ALL OUR RELATIONS empowers us as evolutionary energy is unleashed and liberated. Then the human being joyfully embodies their most creative previously dormant potential in wise action.
To all beside us
And all behind us
May you remind us
From where we've come
To those not yet with us
Oh won't you give us
A prayer of peace,
A song of freedom on our tongues
I have a vision
Of all the children
Finding their mission
In the Great Design
Together we're building
So they'll be living
A circle of giving in their time"
Excerpt from "IN THEIR TIME" by Zo Tobi
"The availability of a comprehensive knowing depends on a willingness to see 'through' the distinctions we make and the objects we identify. The content of our constructs could be considered part of a 'global read-out': the expression of a particular knowledge and embodiment of a particular time and space. To know the 'read-out' as 'read-out' is itself the awakening of Great Knowledge -- a knowledge beyond all specific knowings, attuned to a fundamental 'knowingness'. "
Tarthang Tulku, "Knowledge of Time and Space", page 317
Abiding in the timeless holographic presence
of Timeless Now Awareness (ksana),
having shifted (parinama) into the undivided clarity
of the unity of absolute undifferentiated and differentiated reality that is
no longer (aparanta) limited by linear concepts of time or succession (krama),
or by any degree of bias
belonging to false notions and identifications of separateness,
limitation, grasping, or duality truly transconceptual (nigrahyah),
then true seeing is unleashed
from the realization
from that clear space of absolute nascent stillness
where the co-arising mutuality of all phenomena (pratiyogi)
springs forth naturally.
pratiyogi: In regard to, correlated to, or relatively, correspondingly, comparatively or as compared in terms of the whole; in mutuality; interconnected with.
parinama: transformation: shift.
krama: sequence of events
nigrahyah: inconceivable. ungraspable. inscrutable, incapable of being possessed, owned, nor apprehended by the mind
Commentary: Form (Maya) reveals Brahman. The transpersonal non-dual void is clothed in form. From the still heart/center of winter -- the silent mind at midnight -- all form and objects are observed as incessantly being on fire -- moving. They emanate from and return to the one ceaselessly, hence they are not solid. rigid, or concrete -- they do not exist as a separate or individual/independent "self". The citta-vrtta are thus stilled. This is the stillpoint of the eternal now -- Now awareness -- open and sacred awareness (sacred because it is not limited by time and space).
Here the restlessness of the monkey mind has ceased in nirvikalpa samadhi, as one moves into that great conscious depth of peace. This is the final shift/parinama called here, "parinama-aparanta-nigrahyah", where the mind ceases to grasp onto form, objects, ownership, or conceptual ideations, but rather rests in its own infinite seamless true nature. Duality is impossible here (devoid of an object to grasp upon). The bias and limitations of the individual mind has been replaced by the transconceptual non-dual transcognitive Boundless Mind (jnanasyanantyaj-jneyam) -- the all inclusive all pervading Self -- the Great Integrity. Because the mind has stopped grasping onto objects of thought, it is now capable of pure unobstructed vision (vidya). Clarity and empty openness are merged in natural, virtuous, and spacious spontaneous expression
Intelligence is natural and innate, ignorance is not. Ignorance is the covering/obscuration of this natural intelligence which all are born with. When there is a choice, choose what is natural; and remain HERE, so that, within you, nothing else will be. The innate good, Buddhanature, Christ consciousness, isvara, Maheshvara, Samantabhadra, or bodhicitta goes by different names. It is inherent, inside, and serves as the universal seed for enlightenment. It can also be called the Supreme Truth Bearing Wisdom (rtam-bhara prajna). Here shakti coalesces upon it as the innate organizing principle of the universe which is deeply embedded in all which is living.
The three traditional time settings which the linear mind sequentially imposes on top of "what-is", are tinged with colorings of the past, the future, and imputations upon an existential present consisting of sense objects which appear solid and unchanging (permanent). Ksana (as in realizing the true moment) is the recognition of primordial wisdom here and now. It takes into consideration the depth of transconceptual space. It appears as clarity, as the unity of primordial mind with the evolutionary power, the inseparability of creator/creation, shiva/shakti, crown and root, as the non-dual realization of the true nature of nature.
Great Wisdom leads to the experience of timeless, Great spaciousness beyond the dualistic and limited world of cause and effect where personal karma has been entirely burned up. This liberation (kaivalyam) is both timeless and primordial. It occurs at the juncture of Great Knowledge, Great Space, and Great Time free from any dualistic conception whatsoever.
"At a deep level, ecology merges with spirituality because the experience of being connected with all of nature, of belonging to the universe, is the very essence of spirituality."
Here normal transformation (parinama) is now revealed as a succession of mutually interdependent events, all seamless and intertwined as one inter-related (pratiyogi) event. Hence transformation (parinama) as seemingly separate isolated independent events (krama), is finished. Linear time is over. Source and being -- siva and shakti etc., are recognized as one. Herein the shifting in and out of samadhi ends. Herein lies the secret of nirbija samadhi.
"Under all that we think, lives all we truly believe, like the ultimate veil of our spirits"
Practice: Authentic yoga is to be checked out experientially in synchronized movement, in breath, in pratyahara, contemplation, meditation, and as continuous samadhi in All Our Relations -- in All and Everything
Through non-dual pratyhara withdraw the senses from its externalized draw toward the ruse of external over-objectification. The illusion of seperate I/IT sense objects that appear hard, solid, and fixed are reviewed in transpersonal light. Allow for the reunification of the micro/macro-cosm to integrate. HERE the sense organs are not negated, rather they function in a new light, no longer dominant. Nothing is negated when the third eye, third ear, the ambrosia is tasted, and the fresh scent is present. Allow the mind to naturally wonder in the immensity of timeless presence embracing Shakti. Does samyama on movement as objects in boundless space require gravity? Is it both, or neither? Space makes movement possible, but our recognition and differentiation of it depends on non-space (convergence) -- the unity of emptiness and clarity.
What is non-space (empty space), clear light, and the dalliance of transformity and can one be recognized without the other? Does light reveal timeless light and limitless knowledge?
Every thing is empty of self-existence (or independent existence—existence by itself), except the all inclusive integrity that has no boundaries, known subjectively as pure beingness. Pure beingness (sat) and pure awareness (cit) truly exist when they are aligned and integrated completely. That is the same samadhi when the evolutionary energy (as beingness) is perfectly harmonized with pure open transconceptual awareness. It is the co-emergent state occurring in the sushumna. Cit and Sat, pure awareness and pure non-dual being, Purusa and kundalini, Siva and Shakti, Ayn Soph and Shekinah are married in non-dual union. There are no boundaries in space, awareness, or time when the true nature of mind is awakened. That awareness is the complete and highest samadhi revealing the true nature of phenomena.
Absolute liberation (kaivalyam) reigns
by remediating (pratiprasavah) all coarse dualistic qualities (gunas)
through the realization that they do not exist independently by themselves,
as a separate and disparate "self" (purusa-artha-sunyam),
rather our innate true universal nature of mind (swarupa)
Being empty of an independent separate self,
shines forth and emanates in All Our Relations
as the intrinsic intelligent potentia of consciousness itself (cit sakti)
and is known as such.
iti: thus, such. thusness/suchness as experiential reality.
pratistha: residing; to stand back or rest upon:
purusa: see glossary: Primordial consciousness, true self, siva, creative source, mind-essence, buddhanatue, etc. Purusa is the all penetrating male principle (Siva) behind the co-emergent simultaneity of Siva/Shakti integrity. It is also Visnu, the universal consciousness, the primeval man, isvara, atman, jiva, sattva, or kala. See: I.16 I.24, the beginning of Kaivalya Pada, and especially this discussion entitled Purusa can not be Owned or Bought. See Professor Whicher's commentary on Prakrti and Purusa for a more detailed discussion of purusa as pure being.
artha: purpose, intent, or motivation
sunyanam: openness; empty
gunanam: differentiated qualities
pratiprasavah: remediation; tracing things back to their origin; returning to source; accounting for the cause when viewing the result.
kaivalyam: Absolute absorption and re-integration into our non-dual unconditioned natural state (sahaj samadhi). Unconditional natural liberation and unconditional spontaneous bliss in Sat-Cit-Ananda. Sublime dissolution of the ego. Unconditional, natural, spontaneous, and unbounded freedom, where the mental elusion of "self/ego" dissolves into the unlimited transpersonal non-dual all pervading omnipresent omniscient self-luminous living reality after absorption. Absorption occurs when something is taken "into" a medium and as a result disappears "from" something as a consequence. Absorb involves dissolution or diffusion usually into a larger medium. For example, dhyana (meditation) is the process of the absorption of the modalities of dualistic consciousness into universal all encompassing primordial consciousness. Here the ego-sense or dualistic sense of self is dissolved/absorbed. When that process of union/yoga is complete, it is known as samadhi which is unconditional sublime non-dual liberation. Paradoxically, the disintegration/dissolution of the ego, brings about the greater union/integration with the ultimate truth behind all phenomena. In a similar way, kaivalyam denotes the dissolution of the citta-vrtta.
Dissolution or absorption can indicate a disintegration, but absorption does not end there. Rather a re-integration occurs where the previous form is dissolved and then absorbed (integrated) into the larger solution. In this case the ego/self, the citta-vrtti, samskaras, and past karma, are all broken down and re-absorbed into a universal non-dual unconditioned awareness. That is symbolized by the Tandava, the dance of Shiva, which dissolves the old world and dances in the new.
svarupa (swarupa): our own true nature of mind, realized after the vrtti has ceased.
citi: pure consciousness; vidya (pure vision), unobstructed boundless mind; Now Awareness, Siva, .
Sakti (shakti): nature, creation, evolutionary energy; the creative potential (siva) in action.
Cit-shakti: The union of consciousness and energy. Evolutionary energy (shakti) is inherently intelligent (cit)
Commentary: This is a very succinct and profound sutra. It is safest to refrain from any translation at all for fear of distorting or demeaning its message, purport, and meaning through "interpretative" tendencies. Thus my sincere apologies. In short, WE (as transpersonal interdependent non-dual beings) are moved by THAT, we collectively are THAT, and THAT as ultimate love is what WE manifest when we realize our true potential. Addressing citta-vrtti, from which yoga liberates the mind, Swami Veda Bharati says;
"Such mutation is not possible in citi-shakti, which free of such mutation remains absolute, the transcendental reality (paramarthasatya). This consciousness (citti) must not be mistaken as a quality, but is rather an entity whose very form or nature is light (prakasha). According to the tradition, this potenia (shakti) is that very potent one (purusha).Consciousness is that very consciousness principle., the spiritual self. The citi-shakti is not apart from purusha. The spiritual self is a being of pure energy (shakti)."
HERE the essence of pure consciousness (cit) is known as all pervading/penetrating as one's awareness opens. As one's essential innate clarity is awakened, the yogi is now enabled able to see that universal primordial true nature as innate essential nature within all phenomena. This freedom emerges from the ultimate union of transpersonal non-dual love and awareness and is expressed as love.
Patanjali clearly states that the gunas are not independent, but rather they are empty (sunyanam) of separate/independent self existence. Rather they are interdependent characteristics determined by prakriti as a whole which is governed by the union of cit-shakti. When the mind is opened to primordial consciousness (citi) then the true nature of prakrti is experienced in clear vision. "Things" then are left alone in their natural evolutionary state "as-it-is", unmodified by the artifices of mental formations, projections, conceptual imputations, or limitations. Thus the momentum of the universe is harnessed, yet the yogi goes beyond even that, which is the result of collective karma. Here, finally yogic practice has culminated in a very extraordinary wide bandwidth PRESENT holographic moment. An all inclusive boundless dimensionless (not limited, disrupted, nor conditioned by any thing) is experienced. Shakti and Shiva (cit) complete themselves continually as a divine pulsation. The yogi does not just simply bear passive witness to this "external" event, but rather serves as an active participant in it, as-it-is at each magical display in each moment of sublime wakefulness (as the play of the divine sport or shiva/shakti in loving embrace).
The final heightened stage of yoga is one step beyond the complete merger of undifferentiated consciousness (cit or clear light) with differentiated consciousness (gunanam), which may be also termed the union of boundless space with essence, the infinite with the essential essence or bija point, the unity of dharmadhatu with dharmata, the unification of macrocosm and the microcosm, the inseparable integration of all three kayas. The realized yogi goes beyond that process of communion, merging, or union into an active co-evolutionary expressive supramental state.
AFTER one understands the cit essence residing in all things and beings (as the Hiranyagarbha or Tathagatagarbha buddha essence) including one's own essence or true nature of mind, then one becomes capable of supramental activity/behavior – conscious co-creative and co-evolutionary activity. Here, one no longer simply surrenders (isvara pranidhana) to the evolutionary force and evolutionary intelligent creative principle, which underlies creation as siva/shakti, acting as its devotee, slave or minister, but rather having realized that ongoing unity inside oneself, then one self-activates it as a co-creative/co-evolutionary active and dynamic force that operates free from karmic restraints. This is a jivanmukti (liberated yogi), who has realized kaivalyam. In that way, the true purpose (artha) of yoga is completed.
This is described in the last sutra of the yoga sutras where cit (as the intelligent principle behind pure awareness often represented by Shiva) is merged with sat (as direct experience), as an empowered (sakti) or co-evolutionary movement/force. May that force be with you always, as you are with it.
This sutra resides beyond the scope of linear intellectual analysis, as it brings the entire practice of yoga into focus. Here purusa-artha (the purpose or intent of the heart/core) merges with sarva-artha (the purpose and intent of shakti), and the para-artha (the highest intention as a sacred unfabricated natural motion, moment, movement, or pulsation which is experienced transconceptually. Cit-shaktr represents the inseparable union of siva and shakti, deity and consort, primordial mind and evolutionary energy, cit and sat, etc. It says that in the great sea of transitory diversity which incorporates all qualities (gunam), are empty of independent or fragmented existence (sunyanam). Rather phenomena are intimately interconnected and interdependent not capable of standing independently from their beginningless source. The yogi has learned to see this primordial sourceless source (purusa) as his own true self nature (swarupa), which is omnipresent as the pure essential self within all beings and things through the method of pratiprasava. That is, after having withdrawn his awareness and attention which was drawn outward through the gates of the sixth sense organs from the world of fragmented appearances (appearing solid and substantial), the yogi thus realizes the true nature of his own mind and hence (with open eyes) the true non-dual nature of phenomena.
Yoga says that this mental state of awareness and beingness (cit and sat) is accessible to all practitioners at any time as pure unconditional and natural bliss, yet it is not consciously experienced, acknowledged or fully engaged until the process and practice of yoga is completed. How is it completed? By diligently practicing the preceding yoga processes as the path.
The imbedded purpose of the primordial intention (purusa-artha) lacks form and desires expression naturally. It is known through its momentum, intention, and formations; i.e., through viveka's power to disclose and activate its evolutionary power (shakti). Here it has been cit-shakti at work all the time. Yoga is completed when that connection is made within the human heartmind as true experiential knowledge, which can not be validated by any outside authority or citta-vrtti. The purpose of yoga as a practice is to remediate the mistaken notions that the gunas evolved separately from purusa, thus remediating that error of the dualistic mind is recognition of the origin of the gunas and hence its resolution back into primordial universal omnipresent Source, which shines forth and is revealed everywhere in nature to those with open eyes. Thus yoga opens our eyes and more. It allows us to express this evolutionary power through our our intimate direct participation as its organs, hands, feet, speech, and activities in ALL OUR RELATIONS. So aligned with universal will, so liberated, the yogi liberates. So awakened the yogi awakens and liberates others.
"This Transcendental Knowledge is extremely subtle
Adamantine. like the sky's expanse
Free from stain, the Ultimate, and peace itself
Furthermore, you, yourself are its father"
Hevajra Root Tantra
This unconditioned natural and transconceptual realization and resultant evolutionary activity explains fully why the gunas are empty by themselves. Their true nature being empty by nature (sunyanam gunanam pratiprasavah). Thus we abide (pratistha) in our own true nature (swarupa-pratistha) and thus the unity of pure consciousness (citi) and nature (shakti) consciously coalesce as one. Yoga hence is both the cause and the result. The practice and the end of practice (union). This is kaivalyam. It is also samadhi as defined in III.3 as swarupa-sunyam and as described in I.49-51. Absolute unconditional liberation is a quality of nirbija samadhi or one could say that nirbija samadhi is a quality of kaivalyam. Now go liberate all others skillfully!
Because this sutra is an expression of a profound simplicity, because it is so nakedly self evident and transconceptual, its profundity may appear at first glance to be transparent and extremely subtle, hence easily missed, inscrutable, hidden, secret, or even complicated especially to those overly dependent upon intellectual mentation for meaning. However, sublime truth is sublimely subtle and simple as it resides uncontrived in front of our nose since beginningless time.
The trained and practiced yogi simply relaxes inquiring within, with an open Heartmind -- open, listening, receptive by naturally asking, "how it could be possible to experience primordial Source Now as sacred presence. Without first knowing evolution (as our own process or the bridge), such experiences remain remote. Creation is the creator's perfect mirror, but in fact both together (as purusa/prakrti or shiva/shakti) reveal each other one to the other in a dynamic healing pulsatory wavelike motion. That evolutionary powerful connection is an endless source of true healing. The yogi needs no external support to make this inquiry separate from the evolutionary force. Indeed the intelligent evolutionary power (shakti) will naturally support this unbiased inquiry. Shakti is the conscious bridge from beginningless source to the eternal Now, but she is generally ignored, unrecognized, feared, and negated by the arrogant and ignorant. What is in the way of this fructification? It is negative conditioning, which yoga is designed to destroy (hanum). In fact all veils (sarva-avarana) and impurities (mala) are removed (apetasya).
Thus instead of negating, fearing, or ignoring form, existence, nature, and phenomena, the yogi investigates its true nature by honing the sword of discriminatory wisdom until the true nature of nature and the true nature of mind are revealed as an inseparable whole.
One can not know "Self" through methods of escape, negation, or isolation; yet one can renounce foolish mental habits destructive behavior. If Shakti is indeed the bridge to the sacred moment, then the yogi can use this as a valuable tool because it is the Rainbow bridge to Source and to Self -- it is the friend and teacher and mother Intimately knowing creation/evolution as the mother, leads us to the father and the reality of the father/mother union.
A novice will begin with small recognitions at first, but as the wisdom eye opens the evolutionary cause and source is gradually revealed. All is known when we are open to it. Hence we know Source by tracing back the common origin of all apparently diverse phenomena. At some point in the inquiry, we realize that all beings, things, and stars (phenomena) are intimately and profoundly related. Creation is the signal representative of Source HERE and NOW -- the multiplicity symbolizing the unity. So to reiterate we know Source, then we can know Source in all of Creation as all a unifying all pervading essence which has no independent existential existence. Then we act as its expression as our true self nature (swarupa). All of this happens spontaneously once the vehicle gas become cleansed and opened through the fire of yoga. This is how the hologram is revealed at each non-linear moment. Not recognizing this is concealment, contraction, limitation, imprisonment, or ignorance (avidya).
The form reveals the formless -- the formless illumines the form -- undifferentiated and differentiated in reality are inseparable. How else can we know the formless eternal origin/source? How do we know the absolute without knowing the relative? How do we know the relative as-it-is within a universal unbiased context without taking into consideration the mutuality of the unified hologram? This is the whole (the Great Integrity) lacking no thing, complete and perfect. It is the union of "ha" and "tha", pingala and ida, prana/apana, siva/shakti, father/mother, Cit/sat, lalana/rasana, void/form, primordial wisdom/evolutionary power.. the svabhavakaya. How can that be expressed?
The Invocation to Lord Hanuman, translated by BKS Iyengar
I salute Lord Hanuman, Lord of Breath, Son of the Wind God-
who bears five faces and dwells within us
In the form of five winds or energies
pervading our body, mind and soul,
Who re-united Prakrti (Sita) with Purusa (Rama) -
May He bless the practitioner
By uniting his vital energy -prana-
With the Divine Spirit within.
Thus absolute reality and relative reality no longer clamor to be viewed as separate, but rather as inseparable forming a unitive whole in sattva, then an inseparable all inclusive Reality is directly experienced and expressed.
Evolution (shakti) reveals the creative timeless Source/creator. When these two are known as a unified and simultaneously occurring rhythm or pulsation, they are experienced in Sat-Cit-Ananda. If they are perceived as separate or dual, then conflict, stress, and estrangement occur as a state of spiritual self alienation. In that state instead of revealing Source (purusa), prakrti/ shakti appears as maya concealing siva/Maheshvara instead of revealing him. Thus illusion and falsehood is equated with concealment and ignorance which produces bondage of the consciousness in that way. The good news is that the ultimate liberation of the mind by identifying with its true primordial nature is self evident when the vrtti cease and HeartMind opens. in the great expanse of pure consciousness, beingness, and great bliss (Sat-Chit-Ananda). Thus the reality and wisdom which serves as antidote to illusion and ignorance is the realization of the true nature of mind (swarupa) -- primordial consciousness as ultimate and unconditioned reality is thus unleashed and made accessible. This is experienced as the non-dual all harmonious synchronization in sattva of shiva/shakti, pingala/ida, cit/shakti, spirit and nature, crown and root, mind/body, dharmakaya/rupakaya, sahasrara/muladhara, Ganga and Yamuna -- all come together and are joined again at prayag (triveni sangam) the most holy place.. From there the yogi's most creative healing potential is activated. That too is Tat Tvam Asi. There is nothing beyond that. In this place there are no further words which are useful HERE.
Thus kaivalyam is realized from within the profound non-dual all inclusive scope of ALL OUR RELATIONS. Self abiding HERE, the goal of yoga (swarupa) is fulfilled where all vrttis (distortions) of the infinite mind-field have become annihilated, the purpose of purusa consciousness as pure beingness in swarupa has been achieved HERE in swarupa (recognizing itself as its own true self nature when the differentiations (gunas) are dissolved (sunya) and seen as temporal insubstantial. HERE All and Everything is seen as Eternal Self. HERE all phenomena are self revealed by the self liberation and libation of innate absolute undifferentiated consciousness residing in its true nature (swarupa). Thus any externalized false and limited identifications or fixations of separateness is annihilated and disappear as empty illusions (sunyata) which they truly are. Liberation from limitations -- karma, klesha, samskara, and vasana is thus complete.
Cit (consciousness) is the one reality. Matter is not separated from consciousness, but rather contains it as all pervasive consciousness contains matter contextually. There is only an artificially created gap between the sacred and the world. “The world” is not an illusion (as in some schools of Madhyamaka and Vedanta project); rather the perception of duality is the illusion. More so it is a restriction of awareness -- a limited or fractuous perception. This sutra is a description of the experience (more or less) of the union of cit and sat, siva and shakti, crown and root, sahasrara and muladhara, sky and earth. God did not ban anyone from the Garden, rather the onstricted mind banned sacred presence. This is the vision of sacred earth.
"That non—dual Atman, though never stirring, is swifter than the mind. The senses cannot reach It, for It moves ever in front. Though standing still, It overtakes others who are running. Because of Atman, Vayu, the World Soul apportions the activities of all. It moves and moves not; It is far and likewise near. It is inside all this and It is outside all this. The wise man beholds all beings in the Self and the Self in all beings; for that reason he does not hate anyone. To the seer, all things have verily become the Self: what delusion, what sorrow, can there be for him who beholds that oneness? It is He who pervades all—He who is bright and bodiless, without scar or sinews, pure and by evil unpierced; who is the Seer, omniscient, transcendent and uncreated. He has duly allotted to the eternal World—Creators their respective duties. Into a blind darkness they enter who are devoted to ignorance (rituals); but into a greater darkness they enter who engage in knowledge of a deity alone. One thing, they say, is obtained from knowledge; another, they say, from ignorance. Thus we have heard from the wise who have taught us this. He who is aware that both knowledge and ignorance should be pursued together, overcomes death through ignorance and obtains immortality through knowledge. Into a blind darkness they enter who worship only the unmanifested prakriti; but into a greater darkness they enter who worship the manifested Hiranyagarbha. One thing, they say, is obtained from the worship of the manifested; another, they say, from the worship of the unmanifested. Thus we have heard from the wise who taught us this. He who knows that both the unmanifested prakriti and the manifested Hiranyagarbha should be worshipped together, overcomes death by the worship of Hiranyagarbha and obtains immortality through devotion to prakriti. The door of the Truth is covered by a golden disc. Open it, O Nourisher! Remove it so that I who have been worshipping the Truth may behold It. O Nourisher, lone Traveller of the sky! Controller! O Sun, Offspring of Prajapati! Gather Your rays; withdraw Your light. I would see, through Your grace, that form of Yours which is the fairest. I am indeed He, that Purusha, who dwells there. Now may my breath return to the all—pervading, immortal Prana! May this body be burnt to ashes! Om. O mind, remember, remember all that I have done. O Fire, lead us by the good path for the enjoyment of the fruit of our action. You know, O god, all our deeds. Destroy our sin of deceit. We offer, by words, our salutations to you."
Om. That is full; this is full. This fullness has been projected from that fullness. When this fullness merges in that fullness, all that remains is fullness. Om. Shanti, Shanti Shanti
"Isha Upanishad", translated by Swami Nikhilananda
"Kaivalyam svarupa-pratistha va citi-saktir iti" is a very empowering realization. The very fundamental delusion which falsely assumes that so called phenomena have independent separate existence is hereby entirely subsumed (sunyanam) and remediated. The very idea of a separate observer apart from nature or form, is entirely destroyed. The true nature of one's own mind is revealed and in turn that opened third eye sees clearly in pure vision the true nature of nature. Shiva and shakti and all dualistic limitations have become supremely and ultimately culminated. Luminous selfless love is its ultimate evolutionary expression. This is the end of practice, as the source of inspiration is ever present in Great Presence --as a complete realization -- as the Great Integrity. Shakti and Shiva are expressed as the inseparable unity of pure great limitless compassion and awareness.
That experiential realization is recognized as an ongoing PROCESS that both returns us to source and sustains us (pratiprasava) here and now. We are left entirely open to the seamless unlimited and universal holographic true nature of our our own mind and with it "apparent phenomena" do not exist separate from that realization. This is the fruit of effective yogic practice and presages enlightened living and evolutionary activity.
Practice: Sattva is perfect balance and unity. It is not sameness; rather it is unity (yoga). This is the end of practice.
A functional hatha yoga practice introduces pranic awareness into each movement at each moment as a direct and vital exploration into the now-nature of mind and prana (cit-prana), of the true nature of the gunas, and the way it is related to mental states and emotions as it is reflected in the true nature of the body, all phenomena, including nature, life, evolution, neurophysiology, breathing, all intelligent bodily dynamics, and elemental relationships therein. In that context, prana, as the life force is no longer demoted to identification with a so-called solid physical body apart from a dynamic whole. Rather, prana is recognized as a reflection of cit-shakti, the expression of the marriage of shiva/shakti in the vehicle of its expression, the living yogi. Sattva is the re-unification of mind-essence, the recognition the inseparable nature of space and light, the recognition of cit-prana as initiatory power in All Our Relations in a Universal, Boundless, All-pervading, and Timeless sense.
Shiva representing the innate seed consciousness/awareness principle; while shakti is its dynamic expression in all of life, it is their marriage which authentic yoga celebrates. Thus, hatha yoga (sun/moon yoga), when practiced as such in each moment/movement throughout space and time in a sacred manner, discloses, reflects, and embodies our essential nature. Sattva is found in every movement and breath in All Our Relations, Now (Atha).
The living book opens by itself, when the eyes are opened -- the inner light shines forth. Yoga practice is designed to open that living book, where all are relatives and kin.
Vasudev Kutumbhkam --the Universe is One Family
HERE, in the eternal now, all tendencies to project a "separate self" into any external framework composed of any separate qualities have become totally extinguished and only the creative intelligent power of evolutionary consciousness shines forth (citi-shakter) in all directions (omni-directionally) simultaneously, therein Absolute Liberation reigns by itself -- complete in itself -- as the Great Perfection -- the Mahasandhi, unimpeded forever in eternal love as love loving love - spirit recognizing spirit, Self acknowledging Self as it always has and will be (swaha) in innate self effulgent Eternal Now Awareness inexpressible adequately in words.
"All good things are wild, and free."
Henry David Thoreau
They operate in multiple diverse dimensions
All at once - simultaneously
May I abide openly always in
This natural great integrity! (asteya)
May I be liberated from all conceptual views always
May I be liberated from all compounded, artificial, fabricated, imagined, and contrived views
In All ways
May I be liberated from all views whatsoever, except the naked integrative limitless truth
So may I liberate all beings also (asteya)
May I ever protect beings seeking refuge (ahimsa) liberating them from angst. May unhappiness be removed from all world systems.
May I always speak the truth (satya) and reflect it (reflexively and) naturally in pure virtue as innate pure beingness!
May we always have good friends!
End of the Fourth and Final Chapter with great gratitude beyond any praise to Sri Patanjali, who made the effortless effort, in pure loving service, to transmit the true timeless wisdom teachings of yoga.
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The Yoga Sutras As-It-Is: Table of Contents
Sanskrit to English Annotated Glossary
Yoga Sutras Made Accessible: extracted from the morass of over intellectualization
Plain Language Short Translation
Professor Whicher's commentary on Prakrti and Purusa
Countering World-Negation: The World Affirming and Integrative Dimension of Classical Yoga by Ian Whicher
Alien Gods: Samkhya Interpretation of Nature (using Brahmacarya as the example)
Sri Pungaliya on Patanjali and Jnaneshwar
A Review of S. N. Tandon's. A Re-appraisal of Patanjali’s Yoga-Sutras in the Light of the Buddha’s Teaching by Georg Feuerstein
A Review of Ian Whicher's. The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga by Georg Feuerstein
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